EM3: Car-to-X Communication at Karlsruher Institut für Technologie

Flashcards and summaries for EM3: Car-to-X Communication at the Karlsruher Institut für Technologie

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Study with flashcards and summaries for the course EM3: Car-to-X Communication at the Karlsruher Institut für Technologie

Exemplary flashcards for EM3: Car-to-X Communication at the Karlsruher Institut für Technologie on StudySmarter:

What are typical applications based on DENM?

Exemplary flashcards for EM3: Car-to-X Communication at the Karlsruher Institut für Technologie on StudySmarter:

What are the main differences between CAM and DENM?

Exemplary flashcards for EM3: Car-to-X Communication at the Karlsruher Institut für Technologie on StudySmarter:

What are typical applications based on CAM?

Exemplary flashcards for EM3: Car-to-X Communication at the Karlsruher Institut für Technologie on StudySmarter:

What are typical applications based on infrastructure messages?

Exemplary flashcards for EM3: Car-to-X Communication at the Karlsruher Institut für Technologie on StudySmarter:

What are the advantages of C-ACC over ACC?

Exemplary flashcards for EM3: Car-to-X Communication at the Karlsruher Institut für Technologie on StudySmarter:

Which factors influence the communication range?

Exemplary flashcards for EM3: Car-to-X Communication at the Karlsruher Institut für Technologie on StudySmarter:

What are typical effects influencing the propagation of electromagnetic waves?

Exemplary flashcards for EM3: Car-to-X Communication at the Karlsruher Institut für Technologie on StudySmarter:

Which limitations have the free-space model and the two-way model

Exemplary flashcards for EM3: Car-to-X Communication at the Karlsruher Institut für Technologie on StudySmarter:

Which factors influence the free-space path loss?

Exemplary flashcards for EM3: Car-to-X Communication at the Karlsruher Institut für Technologie on StudySmarter:

How do you expect the free-space transmission range for commercial Wi-Fi at 2.4 GHz in comparison to 5.9 GHz?

Exemplary flashcards for EM3: Car-to-X Communication at the Karlsruher Institut für Technologie on StudySmarter:

Explain the parameters of statistical channel models

Exemplary flashcards for EM3: Car-to-X Communication at the Karlsruher Institut für Technologie on StudySmarter:

What is the principle of link budget calculation?

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Exemplary flashcards for EM3: Car-to-X Communication at the Karlsruher Institut für Technologie on StudySmarter:

EM3: Car-to-X Communication

What are typical applications based on DENM?

DENM = Decentralized Environmental Notification Message

- Emergency vehicle warning

- Emergency brake light

- Stationary vehicle

- Traffic jam ahead warning

- Road works warning

EM3: Car-to-X Communication

What are the main differences between CAM and DENM?

CAM

  • sent always
  • contains general information about vehicle

DENM

  • sent only when hazard occurs
  • contains specific information about hazard

EM3: Car-to-X Communication

What are typical applications based on CAM?

CAM = Cooperative Awareness Message

- Intersection assis

- Slow vehicle warning

- Blind spot detection

- Connected ACC

- Automatic driving

EM3: Car-to-X Communication

What are typical applications based on infrastructure messages?

- Green light optimal speed advisory

- Signal violation warning

- Remaining red and green traffic times

- Roadworks information

EM3: Car-to-X Communication

What are the advantages of C-ACC over ACC?

- Higher accuracy control of vehicle following gap

- Significantly faster responses to speed changes by observing multiple forward vehicles

- Early detection of cut-ins

- Cooperative adaption of speed to increase traffic volume

EM3: Car-to-X Communication

Which factors influence the communication range?

- Required packet reception success rate by application

- System (modulation & coding)

- Channel characteristics

- Interference (packet collisions)

- Receiver (sensitivity)

- Transmission power

- Antenna and vehicle body

EM3: Car-to-X Communication

What are typical effects influencing the propagation of electromagnetic waves?

  • Free-space path loss 
    • no obstruction
    • attenuation dependent on distance
  • Reflection
    • change in direction of wave
    • vehicles, building, street signs, ...
  • Diffraction
    • waves propagated around object
    • vehicles, buildings, ...
  • Scattering
    • wave encountering object with rough surface
  • Penetration
    • wave penetrates through material
    • window, vegetation, ...

EM3: Car-to-X Communication

Which limitations have the free-space model and the two-way model

Free-space model

calculation based on direct path

- inaccurate in rural area

Two-way model

Additionally consider reflection off ground and hight of antenna.

Leads to constructive and destructive interference based on distance.


EM3: Car-to-X Communication

Which factors influence the free-space path loss?

loss is

  • quadratic with distance
  • quadratic with frequency (antenna effectivity)

EM3: Car-to-X Communication

How do you expect the free-space transmission range for commercial Wi-Fi at 2.4 GHz in comparison to 5.9 GHz?

2.4 GHz has higher range since 5.9 GHz has higher frequency and therefore higher loss.

~ double frequency ➔ 6 dB higher loss

EM3: Car-to-X Communication

Explain the parameters of statistical channel models

  • Path loss (free space, ...)
  • Fading statistics (small-scale) fluctuations in the received power due to interference
  • Fading statistics (large scale) fluctuations due to obstructions in path
  • Delay spread - Average power delivered by multi path components
  • Doppler spread - Widening of spectrum due to different Doppler effects caused by multi path components


EM3: Car-to-X Communication

What is the principle of link budget calculation?

  • Starting with the output power adding all the changes in power gain or loss in transmitter, channel and receiver. The result is the receive power.
  • Calculate noise power based on temperature and bandwidth.
  • Calculate signal to noise ration based on receive power and noise power.
  • Subtract receiver noise from SNR

Based on SNR packet error rate for given modulation sheme can be found in charts.


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