Wildbiologie at Hochschule Für Nachhaltige Entwicklung | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Wildbiologie an der Hochschule für nachhaltige Entwicklung

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Types of senses

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•Chemical senses (molecules - smell, taste)

•Visual sense (light waves - see) •Temperature sense (radiation - feel) •Mechanical sense (mechanical - touch, hear)

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Resorption

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- Products of enzymatic digestion (amino acids, lipids, sugars) are resorbed by midgut cells

-> usually not a passive procedure (e.g. following a concentration gradient; only insects do this with glucose)

-> in vertebrates, sugars, and amino acids are actively transported (by cell membrane carrier proteins) into the gut cell and on to the bloodstream)


- Area for resorption greatly enlarged by surface appendices (villi) and microvilli of gut cells

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Lipid digestion

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...begins in the midgut only

pH is raised again, lipids are emulsified (with liquid from the gall bladder)

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Hindgut

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- Peristaltic drives remaining food into hindgut (rectum)

- Water and various ions are resorbed here, and many bacteria are located here (e.g. bacteria producing vitamines – and gases, too)

- Length of gut (= duration of digestion) related to the composition of food (and its digestibility)

- Carnivores have much shorter gut systems compared to herbivores Relation gut length / body length: Cat 4:1, Human 6:1, racoon 8:1 (omnivore), Cow 21:1

->Midgut („Dünndarm“) is not much different (where food particles are resorbed)

->The more plant material is consumed (cellulose!), the longer is the hindgut (e.g. blind gut!)

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Herbivores

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- Pregastric herbivores: Ruminants, Kangaroo

-> Symbiotic digestion of food performed before the stomach and gut („Labmagen“)


- Postgastric herbivores: Rabbit, Hare, Koala

-> Symbiotic microorganisms are located in the blind gut

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Smell

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• distant sense close

• molecules (in high dilution: gases, liquids) liquids

• in nose / on antennae

• primary cells (fast) secondary cells

• many specializations

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Rodents

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In rodents, the symbiotic microorganisms are located in the blind gut. ->Blind gut leads into hindgut


In the hindgut, only a minor part of the nutrients can be resorbed (taken up into the body of the rodent) – very inefficient!


Rodents therefore produce a special feces („Kot“), rich in nutrients and originating from the blind gut... ..which then must be eaten again = Caecotrophy

 Rodents therefore produce two kinds of feces !!

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Information

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Information is gathered by specialized sensory cells and translated into uniform electrical impulses .

- These impulses are conducted by the nervous system

- Sensory cells are often concentrated in sensory organs at the front end of the animal.

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Taste

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- liquids /solutions

 - on tongue/feet

- secondary cells

- 5 types only: bitter / sour / salty / sweet / umami

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Visual sense

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 Perception of electromagnetic waves (visible light)

Light is directed through the optical apparatus (lens..) and focussed onto the retina. Retina is a layer of sensory cells (two types)

- highest concentration of sensory cells: Fovea

- no sensory cells: optic nerve

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Gastrovascular system

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Coelenterates (e.g. jelly fish) and many flat worms (Plathelminths) have a gastrovascular system (only one opening (mouth).

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Digestion

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Food particles are prepared for uptake into the animal body (cells) -> Food must be broken up = mechanical and chemical digestion

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Q:

Types of senses

A:

•Chemical senses (molecules - smell, taste)

•Visual sense (light waves - see) •Temperature sense (radiation - feel) •Mechanical sense (mechanical - touch, hear)

Q:

Resorption

A:

- Products of enzymatic digestion (amino acids, lipids, sugars) are resorbed by midgut cells

-> usually not a passive procedure (e.g. following a concentration gradient; only insects do this with glucose)

-> in vertebrates, sugars, and amino acids are actively transported (by cell membrane carrier proteins) into the gut cell and on to the bloodstream)


- Area for resorption greatly enlarged by surface appendices (villi) and microvilli of gut cells

Q:

Lipid digestion

A:

...begins in the midgut only

pH is raised again, lipids are emulsified (with liquid from the gall bladder)

Q:

Hindgut

A:

- Peristaltic drives remaining food into hindgut (rectum)

- Water and various ions are resorbed here, and many bacteria are located here (e.g. bacteria producing vitamines – and gases, too)

- Length of gut (= duration of digestion) related to the composition of food (and its digestibility)

- Carnivores have much shorter gut systems compared to herbivores Relation gut length / body length: Cat 4:1, Human 6:1, racoon 8:1 (omnivore), Cow 21:1

->Midgut („Dünndarm“) is not much different (where food particles are resorbed)

->The more plant material is consumed (cellulose!), the longer is the hindgut (e.g. blind gut!)

Q:

Herbivores

A:

- Pregastric herbivores: Ruminants, Kangaroo

-> Symbiotic digestion of food performed before the stomach and gut („Labmagen“)


- Postgastric herbivores: Rabbit, Hare, Koala

-> Symbiotic microorganisms are located in the blind gut

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Smell

A:

• distant sense close

• molecules (in high dilution: gases, liquids) liquids

• in nose / on antennae

• primary cells (fast) secondary cells

• many specializations

Q:

Rodents

A:

In rodents, the symbiotic microorganisms are located in the blind gut. ->Blind gut leads into hindgut


In the hindgut, only a minor part of the nutrients can be resorbed (taken up into the body of the rodent) – very inefficient!


Rodents therefore produce a special feces („Kot“), rich in nutrients and originating from the blind gut... ..which then must be eaten again = Caecotrophy

 Rodents therefore produce two kinds of feces !!

Q:

Information

A:

Information is gathered by specialized sensory cells and translated into uniform electrical impulses .

- These impulses are conducted by the nervous system

- Sensory cells are often concentrated in sensory organs at the front end of the animal.

Q:

Taste

A:

- liquids /solutions

 - on tongue/feet

- secondary cells

- 5 types only: bitter / sour / salty / sweet / umami

Q:

Visual sense

A:

 Perception of electromagnetic waves (visible light)

Light is directed through the optical apparatus (lens..) and focussed onto the retina. Retina is a layer of sensory cells (two types)

- highest concentration of sensory cells: Fovea

- no sensory cells: optic nerve

Q:

Gastrovascular system

A:

Coelenterates (e.g. jelly fish) and many flat worms (Plathelminths) have a gastrovascular system (only one opening (mouth).

Q:

Digestion

A:

Food particles are prepared for uptake into the animal body (cells) -> Food must be broken up = mechanical and chemical digestion

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