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Lernmaterialien für International Commercial Law an der Hochschule Esslingen

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Law

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. 

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Law procedure

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

First Assumption

Second Assumption

--> Conclusion

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Addressee

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

– Manager in a family owned medium sized company with a high level of international business 

– No further legal training 

– Adequate level of English 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Civil Law

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

• Codes 

– Code Napoléon 

– Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch 

– Uniform Commercial Code 

• Extrinsic Evidence 

•  Judge is independent (e.g. Art. 97 II German Constitution) 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Common Law

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

• No Codes 

• Case Law 

– Doctrine of Precedent 

– Stare decisis 

• Parol Evidence Rule 

• Equity 

• Legal Opinion 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Law Hierarchy (top-down)

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– UN-Conventions 

– EU-Law 

– Constitution 

– National Law 

– Law of a Federal State 

– Contract 

– But: Freedom of Contract 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW 

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In a so called "Conflict of Laws" Private International Law defines the applicable law between States = Which material law shall govern the facts of the matter?

There are different possibilities. Nowadays, there are at least in Europe regulations like Rome I or II which stipulate the same rules for all member states of the European Union. Generally, there are only national regulations to decide on the material law. Often, there are no regulations at all. Then, it is up to the judge to decide on the law to be applied. The following laws could be applied:

  • Law of oneself?
  • Law of the Court ("Lex fori")?
  • Law of the subject matter ("Lex causae")?
  • Law of the foreign party?
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

LANGUAGE MATTERS

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Be aware that every translation fosters misunderstanding between the parties
  • Take into account that people around the world attach very different meanings to certain legal terms in English although English is spoken as "lingua franca“
  • Use the same term every time risking to bore the reading or listening party. If you change the term although you meant the same the other party will always expect a different meaning
  • Explain an English legal term if there is no equivalent in the local law system which is often the case (“Eigentumsvorbehalt”)
  • Do not try to use an English legal term as a non-native speaker thinking English law must be close to your legal system. Very often it is not!
  • Use annexes to incorporate non-legal content, such as technical or financial matters of to contracts
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

CONTRACT DRAFTING


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  1. Start with checking the possibility of execution: It does not make too much sense to have a judgment in country x which you cannot execute in country y or which can only be executed there with a lot of trouble. Every contract can go wrong. In the end you often must seek compensation for breach of contract. You then have to sue the other party before a court to compulsory collecting of compensation, i.e. execution of a court's judgment.
  2. Try to avoid foreign law: Of course, we live in an international world. But do not be surprised to learn that you are more deeply based in your home jurisdiction as you might think. For example, I cannot think of more than a few people here in Germany who really have an idea of English law on which the contracting parties most often agree. So, it is much easier to understand contract from your own cultural background. Again, the differences between economy and law are substantial.
  3. Be aware of exorbitant places of venue: To win a lawsuit does not depend completely on your legal position or opportunities but also on the mere possibility to lead a law case. That means that a remote place of the court, i.e. the place of venue may obstruct your activities so much that you will lose the case. At the beginning, it sounds nice to travel to New York or Singapore for a hearing but doing that a couple of times may become quite strenuous.
  4. Business structure first, tax optimization afterwards: As business people you are doing business which should involve profits. It is not your primary business to exclude tax payments. Of course, you should try to avoid taxes in close cooperation with your tax consultant but structures of a business transaction should reflect the proper relations and not the relations useful for less taxes. Such structures tend to end in difficult lawsuits.
  5. Civil law: Bear in mind that there are regulations in the code which apply where no provision in an agreement exists.
  6. Common law: Ample formulation is necessary for the complete transaction
  7. Decide on the language which is authoritative for the interpretation of the agreement
  8. Do not rely completely on a professional translator
  9. Stay in close contact to your lawyer in charge
  10. Use the same notions for the same facts: In school everybody learned to vary vocabulary for a good and vital style. You could bore the reader by using always the same expressions. This is completely different with drafting contract. Whenever you use another expression every lawyer will assume that the other expression names other facts. Therefore, if you speak of the same facts stick to your former expression once introduced.
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

CONTRACT DRAFTING II


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  1. CONTRACT HEADER
    1. Exact designation of the parties
    2. Exact power of representation
    3. According to the commercial register
    4. Preamble
  2. JURISICTION/VENUE
    1. Which Court is competent to hear the case?
    2. Arbitration?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

GENERAL ELEMENTS Contract

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  1. CONCLUSION
    1. Matching declarations of intent
    2. Agreement between absentees
    3. Withdraw
  2. DUTIES
    1. Primary obligations
    2. Secondary obligations
  3. REPRESENTATIONS: STATEMENT OF FACTS, ALLEGATIONS OR ARGUMENTS
  4. WARRANTIES
    1. free of defects
    2. any other status
    3. entitled to damages
  5. COLLATERAL
    1. Retention of title („Eigentumsvorbehalt“)
    2. documentary letter of credit
    3. Security assignment
  6. REMEDIES
    1. Damages
    2. Rescission
    3. Injunction
    4. Specific Performance
  7. TERMINATION
    1. Notice
    2. Notice period
    3. For good cause
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Commercial

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

1. Distribution of Goods

2. Supply of Services

3. Action of Legal Entities, i. e. Companies

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  • 31677 Karteikarten
  • 882 Studierende
  • 27 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen International Commercial Law Kurs an der Hochschule Esslingen - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

Law

A:

is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. 

Q:

Law procedure

A:

First Assumption

Second Assumption

--> Conclusion

Q:

Addressee

A:

– Manager in a family owned medium sized company with a high level of international business 

– No further legal training 

– Adequate level of English 

Q:

Civil Law

A:

• Codes 

– Code Napoléon 

– Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch 

– Uniform Commercial Code 

• Extrinsic Evidence 

•  Judge is independent (e.g. Art. 97 II German Constitution) 

Q:

Common Law

A:

• No Codes 

• Case Law 

– Doctrine of Precedent 

– Stare decisis 

• Parol Evidence Rule 

• Equity 

• Legal Opinion 

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Law Hierarchy (top-down)

A:

– UN-Conventions 

– EU-Law 

– Constitution 

– National Law 

– Law of a Federal State 

– Contract 

– But: Freedom of Contract 

Q:

PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW 

A:

In a so called "Conflict of Laws" Private International Law defines the applicable law between States = Which material law shall govern the facts of the matter?

There are different possibilities. Nowadays, there are at least in Europe regulations like Rome I or II which stipulate the same rules for all member states of the European Union. Generally, there are only national regulations to decide on the material law. Often, there are no regulations at all. Then, it is up to the judge to decide on the law to be applied. The following laws could be applied:

  • Law of oneself?
  • Law of the Court ("Lex fori")?
  • Law of the subject matter ("Lex causae")?
  • Law of the foreign party?
Q:

LANGUAGE MATTERS

A:
  • Be aware that every translation fosters misunderstanding between the parties
  • Take into account that people around the world attach very different meanings to certain legal terms in English although English is spoken as "lingua franca“
  • Use the same term every time risking to bore the reading or listening party. If you change the term although you meant the same the other party will always expect a different meaning
  • Explain an English legal term if there is no equivalent in the local law system which is often the case (“Eigentumsvorbehalt”)
  • Do not try to use an English legal term as a non-native speaker thinking English law must be close to your legal system. Very often it is not!
  • Use annexes to incorporate non-legal content, such as technical or financial matters of to contracts
Q:

CONTRACT DRAFTING


A:
  1. Start with checking the possibility of execution: It does not make too much sense to have a judgment in country x which you cannot execute in country y or which can only be executed there with a lot of trouble. Every contract can go wrong. In the end you often must seek compensation for breach of contract. You then have to sue the other party before a court to compulsory collecting of compensation, i.e. execution of a court's judgment.
  2. Try to avoid foreign law: Of course, we live in an international world. But do not be surprised to learn that you are more deeply based in your home jurisdiction as you might think. For example, I cannot think of more than a few people here in Germany who really have an idea of English law on which the contracting parties most often agree. So, it is much easier to understand contract from your own cultural background. Again, the differences between economy and law are substantial.
  3. Be aware of exorbitant places of venue: To win a lawsuit does not depend completely on your legal position or opportunities but also on the mere possibility to lead a law case. That means that a remote place of the court, i.e. the place of venue may obstruct your activities so much that you will lose the case. At the beginning, it sounds nice to travel to New York or Singapore for a hearing but doing that a couple of times may become quite strenuous.
  4. Business structure first, tax optimization afterwards: As business people you are doing business which should involve profits. It is not your primary business to exclude tax payments. Of course, you should try to avoid taxes in close cooperation with your tax consultant but structures of a business transaction should reflect the proper relations and not the relations useful for less taxes. Such structures tend to end in difficult lawsuits.
  5. Civil law: Bear in mind that there are regulations in the code which apply where no provision in an agreement exists.
  6. Common law: Ample formulation is necessary for the complete transaction
  7. Decide on the language which is authoritative for the interpretation of the agreement
  8. Do not rely completely on a professional translator
  9. Stay in close contact to your lawyer in charge
  10. Use the same notions for the same facts: In school everybody learned to vary vocabulary for a good and vital style. You could bore the reader by using always the same expressions. This is completely different with drafting contract. Whenever you use another expression every lawyer will assume that the other expression names other facts. Therefore, if you speak of the same facts stick to your former expression once introduced.
Q:

CONTRACT DRAFTING II


A:
  1. CONTRACT HEADER
    1. Exact designation of the parties
    2. Exact power of representation
    3. According to the commercial register
    4. Preamble
  2. JURISICTION/VENUE
    1. Which Court is competent to hear the case?
    2. Arbitration?
Q:

GENERAL ELEMENTS Contract

A:
  1. CONCLUSION
    1. Matching declarations of intent
    2. Agreement between absentees
    3. Withdraw
  2. DUTIES
    1. Primary obligations
    2. Secondary obligations
  3. REPRESENTATIONS: STATEMENT OF FACTS, ALLEGATIONS OR ARGUMENTS
  4. WARRANTIES
    1. free of defects
    2. any other status
    3. entitled to damages
  5. COLLATERAL
    1. Retention of title („Eigentumsvorbehalt“)
    2. documentary letter of credit
    3. Security assignment
  6. REMEDIES
    1. Damages
    2. Rescission
    3. Injunction
    4. Specific Performance
  7. TERMINATION
    1. Notice
    2. Notice period
    3. For good cause
Q:

Commercial

A:

1. Distribution of Goods

2. Supply of Services

3. Action of Legal Entities, i. e. Companies

International Commercial Law

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