Histology at Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg

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Study with flashcards and summaries for the course Histology at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg

Exemplary flashcards for Histology at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

Functions of Liver

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3 mechanisms of detoxification in liver

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Blood vessels of liver

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Functions of bile

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Steps of bilirubin excretion

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Polarisation of Hepatocytes

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Endocrine pancreas

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Pathology of pancreas: Diabetes mellitus type 1

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Pathology of pancreas: diabetes mellitus type 2

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Functions of blood

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Blood components

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Pathology: erythrocyte concentration, called anemia

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Exemplary flashcards for Histology at the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg on StudySmarter:

Histology

Functions of Liver
  • central organ for metabolism
    • synthesis and storage of 
      • carbohydrates, e.g. glycogen
      • amino acids
      • lipids, e.g. cholesterol
  • synthesis of bile
  • synthesis of blood proteins as coagulation factors, albumins
  • detoxification of metabolites and xenobiotics, e.g. ammonia, ethanol
  • fetal haematopoiesis - synthesis of cellular blood components during fetal development

Histology

3 mechanisms of detoxification in liver
  • catabolism of toxic substrates or conversion ( e.g. NH3 to urea)
  • Excretion via bile, e.g. bilirubin, drugs
  • increasing water solubility by conjugation of polar groups

Histology

Blood vessels of liver
Bringing in blood
  • hepatic artery 
    • 20-30% of blood
    • high O2
  • portal vein 
    • 70-80% of blood
    • low O2 content, high nutrient content
Bringing out blood
  • hepatic vein: inferior vena cava
    • from above
Run along together and form portal triods or glisson's triads

Histology

Functions of bile
  • emulsification of fat
  • excretion of waste (bilirubin from heme, drugs)

Histology

Steps of bilirubin excretion
  1. Hemolysis: heme is bound and turned into unconjugated bilirubin
  2. In hepathocyte of liver: turns into conjugated bilirubin
  3. Via biliary system it goes to small intestine, where it is broken down by proteases to urobilinogen
  4. 10% goes into blood and over hepatocytes into kidney - excreted in urine
  5. 90% is excreted in feces

Histology

Polarisation of Hepatocytes
  • polarised epithelial cells
  • basolateral: in contact with perisinusoidal space
  • apical pole: contact with bile canaliculi

Histology

Endocrine pancreas
  • 2%, called islets of langerhans (stain less)
  • production of hormones, secretion into extracellular space
    • A cells producing glucagon (15%): increase blood sugar by release of glycogen from liver to turn into glucose, increases new synthesis of glucose
    • B cells producing insulin (80%):decreases blood sugar, by increasing the muscle uptake of glucose and the synthesis of glycogen in liver
    • D cells (5%) produce somatostatin: paracrine inhibition of A and B cells
    • PP cells (1-2%) producing pancreatic polypeptide: inhibition of exocrine pancreas

Histology

Pathology of pancreas: Diabetes mellitus type 1
  • autoimmune disease
  • all B cells killed by defense system
  • insulin must be substituted

Histology

Pathology of pancreas: diabetes mellitus type 2
  • causes e.g. insulin resistance, reduced release
  • maily older patients
  • insulin substition only in severe cases

Histology

Functions of blood
  • transport of
    • O2, CO2
    • nutrients, water, minerals
    • antibodies, defense cells
    • waste
    • thermoregulation
    • maintenance of inner environment (homoeostasis)
    • defense
    • haemostasis

Histology

Blood components
  • 7-8%
  • two parts
    • fluid or plasma
      • serum
        • cations, anions, glucose, urea
      • fibrinogen (glycoprotein)
    • cellular components
      • erythrocytes - red:haematocrit
        • 39-50% in men
        • 35-45% in womenleucocytes: white
        • Leucocytes - white
        • thrombocytes/platelets

Histology

Pathology: erythrocyte concentration, called anemia
  • causes
    • blood loss
    • less prodution
    • iron depletion
    • vitamin depletion, e.g. B12, folic acid
    • inherited diseases, e.g. spherocytosis, sickle cell disease

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