Polymermaterial at Hochschule Aalen

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Glass fibers are the mainly used reinforcing fibers in the polymer industry. 

Glasfasern sind die hauptsächlich verwendeten Verstärkungsfasern in der Polymerindustrie.


Please mention at least five benefits these fibers are offering to improve polymer materials. 

Bitte erwähnen Sie mindestens fünf Vorteile, die diese Fasern bieten, um Polymermaterialien zu verbessern.

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Chemical Bonds

The length of different C – C – bonds are: 0.135 nm; 0.140 nm and 0.120 nm

The bond energies are: 528, 402 and 427 (in kJ/mol)

Please assign these figures to the C-C single, double and triple bond?

Why is the bond energy of C-F (460 kJ/mol) higher than the bond energy of C-Cl (280 kJ/mol)?

Keeping in mind that the C-O – bond has a bond energy of 295 kJ/mol, please explain why PTFE is not able to undergo an ageing process by oxidization. 

C-C Bindung

Bond length nm

Bond energy kJ/mol

Single Bond: 

0,140

402

Double:

0,135

427

Triple:

0,120

528

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Thermoplastic materials by far are the preferred polymer materials in the industry compared to thermosets. This is the case although in aircraft and wind turbine industry many thermoset materials are used. The automotive industry is still reluctant to use thermosets. 

Please comment these trends in the industry by making brief statements about thermoset processing and applications by using the following keywords: 

Thermoplastische Materialien sind bei weitem die bevorzugten Polymermaterialien in der Industrie im Vergleich zu Duroplasten. Dies ist der Fall, obwohl in der Flugzeug- und Windkraftanlagenindustrie viele duroplastische Materialien verwendet werden. Die Automobilindustrie zögert nach wie vor, Duroplaste zu verwenden.

Bitte kommentieren Sie diese Trends in der Branche, indem Sie kurze Aussagen zur Verarbeitung und Anwendung von Duroplasten unter Verwendung der folgenden Schlüsselwörter machen:

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For consumer articles, nicely-looking = highly transparent high-impact PS is used. 

Für Konsumgüter wird gut aussehendes = hochtransparentes, wirkungsvolles PS verwendet.


How can we make such polymers tough without losing the transparency? 

Wie können wir solche Polymere zäh machen, ohne die Transparenz zu verlieren?


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Greenhouse gases

In which way does the manufacturing (1), processing (2) and usage (3) of polymer materials contribute to the reduction of the emission of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4 mainly). Name at least two examples for each category (1) …. (3) (Auf welche Weise tragen die Herstellung (1), Verarbeitung (2) und Verwendung (3) von Polymermaterialien zur Verringerung der Emission von Treibhausgasen (hauptsächlich CO2 und CH4) bei. Nennen Sie mindestens zwei Beispiele für jede Kategorie)

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Which other criteria can you imagine for differentiation between Commodity plastics, Technical plastics and High Performance Plastics (name at least three)? (Welche anderen Kriterien können Sie sich für die Unterscheidung zwischen Rohstoffkunststoffen, technischen Kunststoffen und Hochleistungskunststoffen vorstellen?)

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PTFE is a semi-crystalline polymer material which consists of appr. 1/3 amorphous regions and 2/3 crystalline regions after having gone through the sintering process. 

Describe the different ways how the degree of crystallinity of a sintered PTFE product can be influenced


Bellows and diaphragms with high flex-fatigue properties 

Faltenbalg und Membranen mit hohen Biegeermüdungseigenschaften

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DSC results of a fabricated polymer part show a higher melting enthalpy for the second heating compared to those of the first heating. The melting enthalpy of the second heating is similar to the heat of recrystallization.



Which kind of information is delivered by the first heating of DSC analysis? What is the ‘message’ of the values of the second heating?

Welche Art von Informationen liefert die erste Erwärmung der DSC-Analyse? Was ist die "Botschaft" der Werte der zweiten Heizung?

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Replacing steel by Polymer Materials

How does the “Carbon footprint” of a finished product change, when metals as the “MOC” = material of choice are replaced by polymer materials. Take the steps: Raw material, polymer manufacturing, polymer processing, lifetime and recycling into your considerations. (Wie verändert sich der „CO2-Fußabdruck“ eines Endprodukts, wenn Metalle als „MOC“ = Material der Wahl durch Polymermaterialien ersetzt werden? Führen Sie die folgenden Schritte aus: Rohmaterial, Polymerherstellung, Polymerverarbeitung, Lebensdauer und Recycling)

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Tromsdorff –Norrish effect --> Thermoplast compared to thermoset

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Waste management:

Name the individual steps of ‘proper waste management’. In which three groups is the content of the ‘yellow bag’ in Germany devided up for further processing? (Nennen Sie die einzelnen Schritte der „ordnungsgemäßen Abfallentsorgung“. In welchen drei Gruppen wird der Inhalt des „gelben Beutels“ in Deutschland zur Weiterverarbeitung aufgeteilt?

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General Polymer Characteristics

Thermosets start decomposing at TD; what comes prior to TD when the material is being heated up, TG or TM ? (Duroplaste beginnen sich bei TD zu zersetzen; Was kommt vor TD, wenn das Material erwärmt wird, TG oder TM?)

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Exemplary flashcards for Polymermaterial at the Hochschule Aalen on StudySmarter:

Polymermaterial

Glass fibers are the mainly used reinforcing fibers in the polymer industry. 

Glasfasern sind die hauptsächlich verwendeten Verstärkungsfasern in der Polymerindustrie.


Please mention at least five benefits these fibers are offering to improve polymer materials. 

Bitte erwähnen Sie mindestens fünf Vorteile, die diese Fasern bieten, um Polymermaterialien zu verbessern.

  • Fiber combine high tensile strength à hohes E-Modul
  • Glas fibers, the chemical structure is characterized by covalent bonds in 3-diemensional arrangement.
  • Thermal expansion being reduced
  • Gals transition or melting point rise up
  • Gals fibers are isotropic fibers 
  • Low price
  • Non-flammable
  • Good e-modulus
  • Abrasion resistant 
  • 4 times better in conductivity than polymers  
  • Good bonding to polar polymers 
  • Loading mainly in tensile direction (Tensile strength rise up very high)

Polymermaterial

Chemical Bonds

The length of different C – C – bonds are: 0.135 nm; 0.140 nm and 0.120 nm

The bond energies are: 528, 402 and 427 (in kJ/mol)

Please assign these figures to the C-C single, double and triple bond?

Why is the bond energy of C-F (460 kJ/mol) higher than the bond energy of C-Cl (280 kJ/mol)?

Keeping in mind that the C-O – bond has a bond energy of 295 kJ/mol, please explain why PTFE is not able to undergo an ageing process by oxidization. 

C-C Bindung

Bond length nm

Bond energy kJ/mol

Single Bond: 

0,140

402

Double:

0,135

427

Triple:

0,120

528

Carbon florin (C-F) ->  shorter bond length tahn C-Cl, therefore a higher bond energy compared to carbon chlorine (F has a higher electronegativity than Cl) good overlapping of the electron orbitals.

Carbon chlorine (C-Cl) 

No Ageing process from PTFE (Teflon):

Consists of pure C-F bonds (more stable bond), this is the highest bond energy there is. No smaller (C-O bond with 295 kJ7mol) energy can cancel this bond energy. Can’t raise this bond. Fluorine atoms has a higher electronegativity than oxide, cannot age by oxidization. Explanation by thermo dynamic means that the aging reaction which is mainly crosslinked in oxidation is not possible in PTFE you do energy considerations.

Polymermaterial

Thermoplastic materials by far are the preferred polymer materials in the industry compared to thermosets. This is the case although in aircraft and wind turbine industry many thermoset materials are used. The automotive industry is still reluctant to use thermosets. 

Please comment these trends in the industry by making brief statements about thermoset processing and applications by using the following keywords: 

Thermoplastische Materialien sind bei weitem die bevorzugten Polymermaterialien in der Industrie im Vergleich zu Duroplasten. Dies ist der Fall, obwohl in der Flugzeug- und Windkraftanlagenindustrie viele duroplastische Materialien verwendet werden. Die Automobilindustrie zögert nach wie vor, Duroplaste zu verwenden.

Bitte kommentieren Sie diese Trends in der Branche, indem Sie kurze Aussagen zur Verarbeitung und Anwendung von Duroplasten unter Verwendung der folgenden Schlüsselwörter machen:

The industry accepts thermoset – curing reactions in applications:

- Where small number of parts are produced

- To utilize the benefits of thermosets, such as temperature-independent property profile

- Large series production in the industry is always based on thermoplastic processing methods, such as injection molding, extrusion, more in the future, 3D printing

Polymermaterial

For consumer articles, nicely-looking = highly transparent high-impact PS is used. 

Für Konsumgüter wird gut aussehendes = hochtransparentes, wirkungsvolles PS verwendet.


How can we make such polymers tough without losing the transparency? 

Wie können wir solche Polymere zäh machen, ohne die Transparenz zu verlieren?


Small rubber particles, less than appr. 50 nm in diameter, enable transparent High-Impact amorphous polymers. It is desirable to have chemical bonds between the hard and soft phase, e.g. in rubber-modified PS, as the toughening effect is based on exerting pull strength and the hard phase PS) by the rubber particles.

Polymermaterial

Greenhouse gases

In which way does the manufacturing (1), processing (2) and usage (3) of polymer materials contribute to the reduction of the emission of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4 mainly). Name at least two examples for each category (1) …. (3) (Auf welche Weise tragen die Herstellung (1), Verarbeitung (2) und Verwendung (3) von Polymermaterialien zur Verringerung der Emission von Treibhausgasen (hauptsächlich CO2 und CH4) bei. Nennen Sie mindestens zwei Beispiele für jede Kategorie)

Manufacturing: 

  • easier to get oil and gas than to taken iron from the mines in Norway /China to produce steel (no mining)
  • improved production efficiency (verbesserte Produktionseffizienz) lower Enrgie --> lower CO2
  • production emissions reduction (Reduzierung der Produktionsemissionen)

Processing: 

  • short production time, 
  • low energy/temperature consumption (steel 1200°C)

Usage:

  • Improved product design with plastic (Verbessertes Produktdesign mit Kunststoff)
  • Lighter, more efficient products with plastics (Leichtere, effizientere Produkte mit Kunststoffen)

Preserved food by plastic packaging (Konservierte Lebensmittel durch Kunststoffverpackungen)

Polymermaterial

Which other criteria can you imagine for differentiation between Commodity plastics, Technical plastics and High Performance Plastics (name at least three)? (Welche anderen Kriterien können Sie sich für die Unterscheidung zwischen Rohstoffkunststoffen, technischen Kunststoffen und Hochleistungskunststoffen vorstellen?)

  • resistant properties  Beständigkeitseigenschaften     
  • produced volume produziertes Volumen
  • Mechanical resistant  Mechanische Beständigkeit                     
  • Price /quantity Preis /Qualität
  • Chemical resistant    Chemikalienbeständigkeit                        
  • abrasions resistant Abriebsfestigkeit
  • application Anwendung                                               
  • strength Festigkeit

Polymermaterial

PTFE is a semi-crystalline polymer material which consists of appr. 1/3 amorphous regions and 2/3 crystalline regions after having gone through the sintering process. 

Describe the different ways how the degree of crystallinity of a sintered PTFE product can be influenced


Bellows and diaphragms with high flex-fatigue properties 

Faltenbalg und Membranen mit hohen Biegeermüdungseigenschaften

Bellows, High cooling speed - - > higher amorphous (gives good flex-fatigue), and long chains, high molecular weight, and quick cooling speed 

Es wird ein hoher amorpher Anteil benötigt -> hohe Abkühlgeschwindigkeit und hohes MW.

Polymermaterial

DSC results of a fabricated polymer part show a higher melting enthalpy for the second heating compared to those of the first heating. The melting enthalpy of the second heating is similar to the heat of recrystallization.



Which kind of information is delivered by the first heating of DSC analysis? What is the ‘message’ of the values of the second heating?

Welche Art von Informationen liefert die erste Erwärmung der DSC-Analyse? Was ist die "Botschaft" der Werte der zweiten Heizung?

First heating: determine the melting behavior of the part as it was produced. Material and processing impact are determined. Statement on the “thermal history”. Processing and Material properties.


Second heating: determination of crystalline structure of “reference-cooling conditions”; temporary processing effect deleted. Only Material properties and processing influence of molecular weight (irreversible)

Polymermaterial

Replacing steel by Polymer Materials

How does the “Carbon footprint” of a finished product change, when metals as the “MOC” = material of choice are replaced by polymer materials. Take the steps: Raw material, polymer manufacturing, polymer processing, lifetime and recycling into your considerations. (Wie verändert sich der „CO2-Fußabdruck“ eines Endprodukts, wenn Metalle als „MOC“ = Material der Wahl durch Polymermaterialien ersetzt werden? Führen Sie die folgenden Schritte aus: Rohmaterial, Polymerherstellung, Polymerverarbeitung, Lebensdauer und Recycling)

Raw material à reduction of emission of carbon dioxide - low carbon footprint

Polymer manufacturing à reduction of emission of carbon dioxide - low carbon footprint

Polymer processing à reduction of emission of carbon dioxide - low carbon footprint

Lifetime à reduction of emission of carbon dioxide - low carbon footprint, intense lifetime

Recycling à reduction of emission of carbon dioxide - low carbon footprint, reduced landfill (weniger Mülldeponien), Recycling operations (Recyclingvorgänge), Energy recovery (Energierückgewinnung)

Polymermaterial

Tromsdorff –Norrish effect --> Thermoplast compared to thermoset

- TP: no effect, no chemical reaction

-TS: Reaction can get uncontrolled due to exothermic chemical reactions

This overheating with big batches, exothermic reaction, 

This is a reaction out of control, destroyed the material, till burning 

Polymermaterial

Waste management:

Name the individual steps of ‘proper waste management’. In which three groups is the content of the ‘yellow bag’ in Germany devided up for further processing? (Nennen Sie die einzelnen Schritte der „ordnungsgemäßen Abfallentsorgung“. In welchen drei Gruppen wird der Inhalt des „gelben Beutels“ in Deutschland zur Weiterverarbeitung aufgeteilt?

1.avoidense (Vermeidung)

2. Use it longer (länger berwenden)

3. use it several times (mehrmals verwenden) 

4. Recycling

5. Insineration (Verbrennung)

Gelber Sack: Metalls, PE extraction, PP- extraction, energie extraction

Polymermaterial

General Polymer Characteristics

Thermosets start decomposing at TD; what comes prior to TD when the material is being heated up, TG or TM ? (Duroplaste beginnen sich bei TD zu zersetzen; Was kommt vor TD, wenn das Material erwärmt wird, TG oder TM?)

Thermosets change from brittle to solid state at the Tg. Have no TM because due to the small mesh size in the polymers structure, there is no crystallization possible

Therefore Thermosets have a glas transition before they turn into destruction. Duroplaste wechseln bei der Tg von sprödem zu festem Zustand. Sie habe kein TM, da aufgrund der geringen Maschengröße in der Polymerstruktur keine Kristallisation möglich ist

Daher haben Duroplaste einen Glasübergang, bevor sie sich in Zerstörung verwandeln.

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