Cell And Molecular Biology A18MC at Heriot-Watt University | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Cell and Molecular Biology A18MC an der Heriot-Watt University

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What is a nucleus?

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Its the organelle that defines eukaryotes: a membrane bound compartment containing all the genetic material.

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Give 2 examples of exceptions where a cell has no nucleus.

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Mature mammalian red blood cells and tube cells in plants.

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List the nucleus' functions.

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  • Store genetic info
  • scrutiny and repair of code
  • replicate genetic code prior to cell division
  • edit messages ( so different proteins can be produced from the same code)
  • regulate message production (so protein production is controlled and co-ordinated)
  • assemble rRNA and ribosomes that read the mRNA and translate the messages into appropriate proteins
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Why do eukaryotes have a nucleus?

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To allow for the DNA to be transcribed then translated and to store all genetic information.

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What is a genome?

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The complete set of genes or genetic material present in a cell or organism.

The collection of genetic information.

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What are the different types of genomes a Eukaryote can have?

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Nuclear genome

Mitochondrial genome

Plastid genome


They can have more than one.

If the genome is not specified then it's usually the nuclear genome being referred to.

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Chromosomal packaging

How is DNA packaged?

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DNA is very tightly packaged.

First level around Histones. Octamer of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 (two of each) form a core around which the DNA is wrapped.

Approx 166 bp of DNA. Which is not a lot considering there are hundreds of thousands of nucleosomes in a nucleus.

They form a helical arrangement called a solenoid.

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What is a histone?

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  1. any of a group of basic proteins found in chromatin.

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What is chromatin?

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  1. the material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria (i.e. eukaryotes) are composed, consisting of protein, RNA, and DNA.

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What is a chromatid?

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one of the usually paired and parallel strands of a duplicated chromosome joined by a single centromere 

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What is a chromosome?

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A chromosome is a string of DNA wrapped around associated proteins that give the connected nucleic acid bases a structure. During interphase of the cell cycle, the chromosome exists in a loose structure, so proteins can be translated from the DNA and the DNA can be replicated. 

Storage units of genes.

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What is a gene?

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Basic unit of genetic information. Genes determine the inherited characters.

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Q:

What is a nucleus?

A:

Its the organelle that defines eukaryotes: a membrane bound compartment containing all the genetic material.

Q:

Give 2 examples of exceptions where a cell has no nucleus.

A:

Mature mammalian red blood cells and tube cells in plants.

Q:

List the nucleus' functions.

A:
  • Store genetic info
  • scrutiny and repair of code
  • replicate genetic code prior to cell division
  • edit messages ( so different proteins can be produced from the same code)
  • regulate message production (so protein production is controlled and co-ordinated)
  • assemble rRNA and ribosomes that read the mRNA and translate the messages into appropriate proteins
Q:

Why do eukaryotes have a nucleus?

A:

To allow for the DNA to be transcribed then translated and to store all genetic information.

Q:

What is a genome?

A:

The complete set of genes or genetic material present in a cell or organism.

The collection of genetic information.

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

What are the different types of genomes a Eukaryote can have?

A:

Nuclear genome

Mitochondrial genome

Plastid genome


They can have more than one.

If the genome is not specified then it's usually the nuclear genome being referred to.

Q:

Chromosomal packaging

How is DNA packaged?

A:

DNA is very tightly packaged.

First level around Histones. Octamer of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 (two of each) form a core around which the DNA is wrapped.

Approx 166 bp of DNA. Which is not a lot considering there are hundreds of thousands of nucleosomes in a nucleus.

They form a helical arrangement called a solenoid.

Q:

What is a histone?

A:
  1. any of a group of basic proteins found in chromatin.

Q:

What is chromatin?

A:
  1. the material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria (i.e. eukaryotes) are composed, consisting of protein, RNA, and DNA.

Q:

What is a chromatid?

A:

one of the usually paired and parallel strands of a duplicated chromosome joined by a single centromere 

Q:

What is a chromosome?

A:

A chromosome is a string of DNA wrapped around associated proteins that give the connected nucleic acid bases a structure. During interphase of the cell cycle, the chromosome exists in a loose structure, so proteins can be translated from the DNA and the DNA can be replicated. 

Storage units of genes.

Q:

What is a gene?

A:

Basic unit of genetic information. Genes determine the inherited characters.

Cell and Molecular Biology A18MC

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