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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Whats internal critisism?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Attacking the interference
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What do you have to keep in mind in order to construct moral arguments?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- if they are logically valid
- if they include precise concepts
- if they include true empirical premises
- if they infClaude sound moral premises
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How doe we know if a moral premise is sound and plausible?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
1. Start with your initial moral judgements about a certain case
2.try to fund moral principles that can explain moral judgements
3. Check if these principles can also explain judgements about other moral cases (to see if they are also plausible in different cases)

ex:
1. it is permissible to redirect the trolley
2. The fewer präpele die, the morally better it is
3. Is it also permissible to punch off the large man? (Many would switch here so it might not be a good moral premise to say you can redirect the trolley)
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How do we know if a moral premise is sound and plausible (2)?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
 - either the options from before fit or not.
-> if thes fit, its morally plausible

if not: modify moral principles, find other principles that fit your different moral judgements better, or consider modifying your moral judgements

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Examples for moral questions
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- which action is morally right, which is morally wrong? and why?
- what ought (sollen) I to do morally? and why? 
- what am I morally permitted to do, what am I forbidden to do? and why?
- what is morally good, what is morally bad? and why?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is a purpose of ethics?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- attempts to answer moral questions (about the moral status of a person, action, institution,…)
- seeks to explain why those actions, persons, ... Have these moral statuses 
    ->  seeks to determine what the correct answer to these moral questions is 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is a descriptive statement?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
descriptive statements aim to tell us what the world is like

ex: „donald Trump was president of the US„, „you lied to your friend“ , …
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is a normative statement?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Normative statements aim to evaluate the way the world is ought to be 

ex: „it was a moral nightmare when trump was president“, „you are a coward for lying to your friend“,…
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What schema do moral theories follow?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Object of evaluation O has a moral status M in virtue of consideration C

-> different moral theories fill this schema differently (by drawing on different considerations C to explain why O has M)
-> that means they can come (but don’t have to) to different conclusions about O‘s status M
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Moral theories: consequentialism - what are the core ideas?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- an action is good or bad bc of its consequences (morality is about making the world a better place)
-> if A has better consequences than B we ought to do A
-> if A and B have the same consequences we can do either A or B
-> if A has a worse consequence than B, we are forbidden from doing A
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Examples for consequentialism
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- „markets are morally valuable because they maximise welfare“
- „we should drop all covid restrictions because doing so maximises overall utility“
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
how can we criticise moral arguments?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
- moral arguments can be logically invalid in the same way as other arguments can be:
   -> conclusion might not follow from premises
   -> premises might include equivocations and ambiguity, using terms in shifting and/or imprecise senses

-> Internat criticism: attacking the interference
Lösung ausblenden
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Q:
Whats internal critisism?
A:
Attacking the interference
Q:
What do you have to keep in mind in order to construct moral arguments?
A:
- if they are logically valid
- if they include precise concepts
- if they include true empirical premises
- if they infClaude sound moral premises
Q:
How doe we know if a moral premise is sound and plausible?
A:
1. Start with your initial moral judgements about a certain case
2.try to fund moral principles that can explain moral judgements
3. Check if these principles can also explain judgements about other moral cases (to see if they are also plausible in different cases)

ex:
1. it is permissible to redirect the trolley
2. The fewer präpele die, the morally better it is
3. Is it also permissible to punch off the large man? (Many would switch here so it might not be a good moral premise to say you can redirect the trolley)
Q:
How do we know if a moral premise is sound and plausible (2)?
A:
 - either the options from before fit or not.
-> if thes fit, its morally plausible

if not: modify moral principles, find other principles that fit your different moral judgements better, or consider modifying your moral judgements

Q:
Examples for moral questions
A:
- which action is morally right, which is morally wrong? and why?
- what ought (sollen) I to do morally? and why? 
- what am I morally permitted to do, what am I forbidden to do? and why?
- what is morally good, what is morally bad? and why?
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
What is a purpose of ethics?
A:
- attempts to answer moral questions (about the moral status of a person, action, institution,…)
- seeks to explain why those actions, persons, ... Have these moral statuses 
    ->  seeks to determine what the correct answer to these moral questions is 
Q:
What is a descriptive statement?
A:
descriptive statements aim to tell us what the world is like

ex: „donald Trump was president of the US„, „you lied to your friend“ , …
Q:
What is a normative statement?
A:
Normative statements aim to evaluate the way the world is ought to be 

ex: „it was a moral nightmare when trump was president“, „you are a coward for lying to your friend“,…
Q:
What schema do moral theories follow?
A:
Object of evaluation O has a moral status M in virtue of consideration C

-> different moral theories fill this schema differently (by drawing on different considerations C to explain why O has M)
-> that means they can come (but don’t have to) to different conclusions about O‘s status M
Q:
Moral theories: consequentialism - what are the core ideas?
A:
- an action is good or bad bc of its consequences (morality is about making the world a better place)
-> if A has better consequences than B we ought to do A
-> if A and B have the same consequences we can do either A or B
-> if A has a worse consequence than B, we are forbidden from doing A
Q:
Examples for consequentialism
A:
- „markets are morally valuable because they maximise welfare“
- „we should drop all covid restrictions because doing so maximises overall utility“
Q:
how can we criticise moral arguments?
A:
- moral arguments can be logically invalid in the same way as other arguments can be:
   -> conclusion might not follow from premises
   -> premises might include equivocations and ambiguity, using terms in shifting and/or imprecise senses

-> Internat criticism: attacking the interference
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