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Big Data & Data Science

Common Variable Types

Qualitative Variable

Big Data & Data Science

What is a qualitative variable?

Also called categorical variables, take on **values that are names or labels** e.g. the gender

Big Data & Data Science

What measurement scales are correct?

Nominal scale

Big Data & Data Science

What expresses the nominal scale?

Characteristic attributes can be **distinguished**, eg gender. A subtype of it with only two categories (eg male/female) is called **dichotomous**

Big Data & Data Science

What expresses the ordinal scale?

Characteristic attributes can be distinguished and ranked. Eg educational achivement.

! Intervals between the values can neither be**compared **nor **interpreted**

! Intervals between the values can neither be

Big Data & Data Science

What expresses the metric scale?

- Characteristic attributes can be distinguished and ranked
- Intervals can be compared
- Metric scale divides further into interval and ratio scale

- Ratio Scale has a naturally given point of origin (eg body weight)
- Interval scale has an artificially given point of origin (eg calculation times)

Big Data & Data Science

What is a Task and what is the character?

- Defined as a job a computer program has to learn in order to execute it
- Learning itself is not considered as a discrete task
- eg Teaching a computer in how to play checkers, then
**playing checkers itself**is the Task T

Big Data & Data Science

Definition of Experience E?

- Is defined as a set of training instances from a dataset that is used by a computer program in order to learn how to execute a task T
- eg Experience is obtained by the computer program by playing checkers games against itself

Big Data & Data Science

What does perfomance P mean?

- Is a measure for evaluating how good a computer program executes a task T
- In terms of prediction a very simple measurement is the accuracy i.e. the percentage of correct predictions in relationship to all predictions made
- Finding a correct metric which properly and precisely measures the perfomance P of a task T is not a trivial process and closely dependent of the selected model
- Perfomance P can be a
**mathematical objective function**value in an optimization process on the one hand **...and also a****descriptive and intuitve metric**to communicate perfomance to non-technical persons on the other hand

Big Data & Data Science

Finding a correct metric which ... measures the perfomance P of a task T is ... and closely dependent of the selected model.

properly and precisely

Big Data & Data Science

What are things like linear regression or random forests?

Machine learning algorithms

Big Data & Data Science

What are the key features of **Supervised learning**?

- Refers to a group of algorithms that require a
**dataset of exemplary input-output combinations**- those combinations consist of
**features**used to make predictions and an expected outcome called**label**

- those combinations consist of
- Feature sets are
**iteratively**fed to the algorithm - for each set the algorithm uses the current state of model parameters and returns a
**prediction** - The
**prediction error**is a feedback for the algorithm of what went wrong and how to update the model parameters - Major goal:
**to find parameter values**that allow a model to perform well on historical data and to**make predictions on unknown data**that have been part of the training set

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