Big Data & Data Science at FOM Hochschule für Oekonomie & Management

Flashcards and summaries for Big Data & Data Science at the FOM Hochschule für Oekonomie & Management

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Exemplary flashcards for Big Data & Data Science at the FOM Hochschule für Oekonomie & Management on StudySmarter:

Common Variable Types

Exemplary flashcards for Big Data & Data Science at the FOM Hochschule für Oekonomie & Management on StudySmarter:

What is a qualitative variable?

Exemplary flashcards for Big Data & Data Science at the FOM Hochschule für Oekonomie & Management on StudySmarter:

What measurement scales are correct?
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Exemplary flashcards for Big Data & Data Science at the FOM Hochschule für Oekonomie & Management on StudySmarter:

What expresses the nominal scale?

Exemplary flashcards for Big Data & Data Science at the FOM Hochschule für Oekonomie & Management on StudySmarter:

What expresses the ordinal scale?

Exemplary flashcards for Big Data & Data Science at the FOM Hochschule für Oekonomie & Management on StudySmarter:

What expresses the metric scale?

Exemplary flashcards for Big Data & Data Science at the FOM Hochschule für Oekonomie & Management on StudySmarter:

What is a Task and what is the character?
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Definition of Experience E?

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What does perfomance P mean?

Exemplary flashcards for Big Data & Data Science at the FOM Hochschule für Oekonomie & Management on StudySmarter:

Finding a correct metric which ... measures the perfomance P of a task T is ... and closely dependent of the selected model.

Exemplary flashcards for Big Data & Data Science at the FOM Hochschule für Oekonomie & Management on StudySmarter:

What are things like linear regression or random forests?
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What are the key features of Supervised learning?

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Exemplary flashcards for Big Data & Data Science at the FOM Hochschule für Oekonomie & Management on StudySmarter:

Big Data & Data Science

Common Variable Types
Qualitative Variable

Big Data & Data Science

What is a qualitative variable?
Also called categorical variables, take on values that are names or labels e.g. the gender

Big Data & Data Science

What measurement scales are correct?
Nominal scale

Big Data & Data Science

What expresses the nominal scale?
Characteristic attributes can be distinguished, eg gender. A subtype of it with only two categories (eg male/female) is called dichotomous

Big Data & Data Science

What expresses the ordinal scale?
Characteristic attributes can be distinguished and ranked. Eg educational achivement.

! Intervals between the values can neither be compared nor interpreted

Big Data & Data Science

What expresses the metric scale?
  • Characteristic attributes can be distinguished and ranked
  • Intervals can be compared
  • Metric scale divides further into interval and ratio scale
  • Ratio Scale has a naturally given point of origin (eg body weight)
  • Interval scale has an artificially given point of origin (eg calculation times)




Big Data & Data Science

What is a Task and what is the character?
  • Defined as a job a computer program has to learn in order to execute it
  • Learning itself is not considered as a discrete task
  • eg Teaching a computer in how to play checkers, then playing checkers itself is the Task T

Big Data & Data Science

Definition of Experience E?
  • Is defined as a set of training instances from a dataset that is used by a computer program in order to learn how to execute a task T
  • eg Experience is obtained by the computer program by playing checkers games against itself

Big Data & Data Science

What does perfomance P mean?
  • Is a measure for evaluating how good a computer program executes a task T
  • In terms of prediction a very simple measurement is the accuracy i.e. the percentage of correct predictions in relationship to all predictions made
  • Finding a correct metric which properly and precisely measures the perfomance P of a task T is not a trivial process and closely dependent of the selected model
  • Perfomance P can be a mathematical objective function value in an optimization process on the one hand 
  • ...and also a descriptive and intuitve metric to communicate perfomance to non-technical persons on the other hand

Big Data & Data Science

Finding a correct metric which ... measures the perfomance P of a task T is ... and closely dependent of the selected model.
properly and precisely

Big Data & Data Science

What are things like linear regression or random forests?
Machine learning algorithms

Big Data & Data Science

What are the key features of Supervised learning?
  • Refers to a group of algorithms that require a dataset of exemplary input-output combinations
    • those combinations consist of features used to make predictions and an expected outcome called label
  • Feature sets are iteratively fed to the algorithm
  • for each set the algorithm uses the current state of model parameters and returns a prediction
  • The prediction error  is a feedback for the algorithm of what went wrong and how to update the model parameters
  • Major goal: to find parameter values that allow a model to perform well on historical data and to make predictions on unknown data that have been part of the training set

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