IA at Fachhochschule Aachen | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für IA an der Fachhochschule Aachen

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How does Power Distance manifest itself? 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
High 
 • unequal power distribution 
• steep hierarchy 
• autocratic management style 

Low
• flat hierarchy 
• equal power distribution 
• co-operative management style 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Potential cross-cultural problem areas (Power Distance) 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• management style 
• decisions 
• supervisions 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Uncertainty Avoidance 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Refers to the extend to which people in a society feel threatened by ambiguous situations  

Germany - M 
China - Low 
USA - Low 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How does Uncertainty Avoidance manifest itself? 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
High
• formal rules required 
• prefer details, specific plans 
• minimize risk

Low
• frustration over given tasks 
• fear of change 
• loyalty 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Individualism (Hofstede) 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Refers to the tendency of people to look after themselves and their immediate family only and neglect the needs of society 

(vs. Collectivism) 
Collectivist cultures look after people in exchange for loyalty 

Germany - High 
China - Low 
USA - High 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How does Individualism / Collectivism manifest itself?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Individualistic societies 
• self-oriented 
• Personal success is important 
• modern society 

Collectivistic societies 
• group-oriented 
• relationships are deemed important 
• traditional society 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Potential cross-cultural problem areas  (Individualism)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
• general potential for misunderstanding 
• behavior may be interpreted wrongly 
• loyalty towards company 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Masculinity vs. Femininity 
(Hofstede) 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Refers to the degree of typical “masculine” or “feminine” values in a society 
( Germany - H, China - H,  USA - High) 
masculinity 
- emphasis on assertiveness 
- acquisition of money and status 

femininity 
- emphasis on people relationships 
-concern for others 

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How does Masculinity or Femininity manifest itself? 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
High 
- ego-oriented 
- money and achievement are important 
- “live to work” 
- fewer women in management

Low
- relationship oriented 
- people & quality of life are important 
- “work to live” 
- more women in management 

Potential cross-cultural problem areas:
- achievement 
- motivation 
- gender roles 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Long vs. Short Term Orientation 
               (Hofstede) 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Long Term Orientation stands for fostering of virtues oriented toward future rewards, in particular perseverance and thrift.
- persistence 
- thrift 
Germany - high. 

Short Term Orientation stands for the fostering of virtues related to the past and present, in particular respect for tradition, preservation of face and full fulfilling social obligations
- protecting face 
- personal  steadiness and stability 
USA - low 


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How does Long Term Orientation manifest itself ?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Long Term Orientation 
-emphasis on persistence 
- save, be thrifty 
- leisure time not too important 

Short Term Orientation 
-emphasis on quick results 
- spend 
- leisure time important 

Potential cross cultural problem areas :
- time issues in negotiations 
- importance of building up relationships 
- change of team members 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Power Distance 
    (Hofstede) 
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Is the level of acceptance by a society of unequal distribution of power in institutions.

Germany - Low 
China - High 
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Q:
How does Power Distance manifest itself? 
A:
High 
 • unequal power distribution 
• steep hierarchy 
• autocratic management style 

Low
• flat hierarchy 
• equal power distribution 
• co-operative management style 
Q:
Potential cross-cultural problem areas (Power Distance) 
A:
• management style 
• decisions 
• supervisions 
Q:
Uncertainty Avoidance 
A:
Refers to the extend to which people in a society feel threatened by ambiguous situations  

Germany - M 
China - Low 
USA - Low 
Q:
How does Uncertainty Avoidance manifest itself? 
A:
High
• formal rules required 
• prefer details, specific plans 
• minimize risk

Low
• frustration over given tasks 
• fear of change 
• loyalty 
Q:
Individualism (Hofstede) 

A:
Refers to the tendency of people to look after themselves and their immediate family only and neglect the needs of society 

(vs. Collectivism) 
Collectivist cultures look after people in exchange for loyalty 

Germany - High 
China - Low 
USA - High 
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Q:
How does Individualism / Collectivism manifest itself?

A:
Individualistic societies 
• self-oriented 
• Personal success is important 
• modern society 

Collectivistic societies 
• group-oriented 
• relationships are deemed important 
• traditional society 
Q:
Potential cross-cultural problem areas  (Individualism)
A:
• general potential for misunderstanding 
• behavior may be interpreted wrongly 
• loyalty towards company 
Q:
Masculinity vs. Femininity 
(Hofstede) 
A:
Refers to the degree of typical “masculine” or “feminine” values in a society 
( Germany - H, China - H,  USA - High) 
masculinity 
- emphasis on assertiveness 
- acquisition of money and status 

femininity 
- emphasis on people relationships 
-concern for others 

Q:
How does Masculinity or Femininity manifest itself? 
A:
High 
- ego-oriented 
- money and achievement are important 
- “live to work” 
- fewer women in management

Low
- relationship oriented 
- people & quality of life are important 
- “work to live” 
- more women in management 

Potential cross-cultural problem areas:
- achievement 
- motivation 
- gender roles 
Q:
Long vs. Short Term Orientation 
               (Hofstede) 
A:
Long Term Orientation stands for fostering of virtues oriented toward future rewards, in particular perseverance and thrift.
- persistence 
- thrift 
Germany - high. 

Short Term Orientation stands for the fostering of virtues related to the past and present, in particular respect for tradition, preservation of face and full fulfilling social obligations
- protecting face 
- personal  steadiness and stability 
USA - low 


Q:
How does Long Term Orientation manifest itself ?

A:
Long Term Orientation 
-emphasis on persistence 
- save, be thrifty 
- leisure time not too important 

Short Term Orientation 
-emphasis on quick results 
- spend 
- leisure time important 

Potential cross cultural problem areas :
- time issues in negotiations 
- importance of building up relationships 
- change of team members 
Q:
Power Distance 
    (Hofstede) 
A:
Is the level of acceptance by a society of unequal distribution of power in institutions.

Germany - Low 
China - High 
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