Cancer Biology And Implants at Fachhochschule Aachen | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für Cancer biology and implants an der Fachhochschule Aachen

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FALSE or CORRECT:

 All tumor cells are cancerous cells.

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false

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What types of tumours are there and how are they differentiated? 

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Characteristics of Benign Tumors

  • Cells tend not to spread
  • Most grow slowly
  • Do not invade nearby tissue
  • Do not metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body
  • Tend to have clear boundaries
  • Under a pathologist's microscope, shape, chromosomes, and DNA of cells appear normal
  • Do not secrete hormones or other substances (an exception: pheochromocytomas of the adrenal gland)
  • May not require treatment if not health-threatening
  • Unlikely to recur if removed or require further treatment such as radiation or chemotherapy

 

Characteristics of Malignant Tumors

  • Cells can spread
  • Usually grow fairly rapidly
  • Often invade basal membrane that surrounds nearby healthy tissue
  • Can spread via bloodstream or lymphatic system, or by sending "fingers" into nearby tissue
  • May recur after removal, sometimes in areas other the original site
  • Cells have abnormal chromosomes and DNA characterized by large, dark nuclei; may have abnormal shape
  • Can secrete substances that cause fatigue and weight loss (paraneoplastic syndrome)
  • May require aggressive treatment, including surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy medications
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From which two sources stem cells can be collected?

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The peripheral blood and the bone marrow

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Why is the HLA-genotype used for standard typing?

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The HLA-genotype is the main indicator for a successful stem cell transplantation

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Which loci are compared despite the HLA-locus ?

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The ABO-locus and the CCR5∆32-Locus

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How are the survival rates for early and advanced Leukemia patients after a stem cell transplantation?

            

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The survival rates are ~50 % for early and ~30 % for advanced leukaemia

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Why can spontaneous mutations occur?  



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because of oxygen --> free radicals 

verry active molecule, one electron in the last orbit is missing

--> there are enzymes (antioxidant enzymes) take the radicals away


- break DNA strands 

--> result in some genes being permanently switched on, such is the case with cancerous cell growth.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Which of the two sources is the mainly used today?

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The peripheral blood

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Hot Spot for point mutation with UV-light?


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--> TTT(as basepair)--> skin cancer

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Which three classes of genes are mutated frequently in cancer: 



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a. Proto-oncogenes,whose products normally stimulate cell proliferation.


b. Tumor suppressor genes, whose products normally inhibit proliferation.


c. Mutatorgenes, whose products ensure accurate replication and maintenance of the genome.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Why does a mutation in the p53 gene leads to cancer?


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P53 activates p21 it causes cells to arrest in G1 by binding to a Cdk complex

--> Kinase activity is blocked, so genes for moving from G1 to S are not activated.

 

If p53 is mutated, cell moves from G1 to S Phase without reparation or apoptosis. 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

How are the samples of registered donors sequenced?

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With High-throughput next generation sequencing (NGS)

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Q:

FALSE or CORRECT:

 All tumor cells are cancerous cells.

A:

false

Q:

What types of tumours are there and how are they differentiated? 

A:

Characteristics of Benign Tumors

  • Cells tend not to spread
  • Most grow slowly
  • Do not invade nearby tissue
  • Do not metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body
  • Tend to have clear boundaries
  • Under a pathologist's microscope, shape, chromosomes, and DNA of cells appear normal
  • Do not secrete hormones or other substances (an exception: pheochromocytomas of the adrenal gland)
  • May not require treatment if not health-threatening
  • Unlikely to recur if removed or require further treatment such as radiation or chemotherapy

 

Characteristics of Malignant Tumors

  • Cells can spread
  • Usually grow fairly rapidly
  • Often invade basal membrane that surrounds nearby healthy tissue
  • Can spread via bloodstream or lymphatic system, or by sending "fingers" into nearby tissue
  • May recur after removal, sometimes in areas other the original site
  • Cells have abnormal chromosomes and DNA characterized by large, dark nuclei; may have abnormal shape
  • Can secrete substances that cause fatigue and weight loss (paraneoplastic syndrome)
  • May require aggressive treatment, including surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy medications
Q:

From which two sources stem cells can be collected?

A:

The peripheral blood and the bone marrow

Q:

Why is the HLA-genotype used for standard typing?

A:

The HLA-genotype is the main indicator for a successful stem cell transplantation

Q:

Which loci are compared despite the HLA-locus ?

A:

The ABO-locus and the CCR5∆32-Locus

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

How are the survival rates for early and advanced Leukemia patients after a stem cell transplantation?

            

A:

The survival rates are ~50 % for early and ~30 % for advanced leukaemia

Q:

Why can spontaneous mutations occur?  



A:

because of oxygen --> free radicals 

verry active molecule, one electron in the last orbit is missing

--> there are enzymes (antioxidant enzymes) take the radicals away


- break DNA strands 

--> result in some genes being permanently switched on, such is the case with cancerous cell growth.

Q:

Which of the two sources is the mainly used today?

A:

The peripheral blood

Q:

Hot Spot for point mutation with UV-light?


A:

--> TTT(as basepair)--> skin cancer

Q:

Which three classes of genes are mutated frequently in cancer: 



A:

a. Proto-oncogenes,whose products normally stimulate cell proliferation.


b. Tumor suppressor genes, whose products normally inhibit proliferation.


c. Mutatorgenes, whose products ensure accurate replication and maintenance of the genome.

Q:

Why does a mutation in the p53 gene leads to cancer?


A:

P53 activates p21 it causes cells to arrest in G1 by binding to a Cdk complex

--> Kinase activity is blocked, so genes for moving from G1 to S are not activated.

 

If p53 is mutated, cell moves from G1 to S Phase without reparation or apoptosis. 

Q:

How are the samples of registered donors sequenced?

A:

With High-throughput next generation sequencing (NGS)

Cancer biology and implants

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