Neural Systems for Sensory, Motor and higher brain functions at ETHZ - ETH Zurich

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Exemplary flashcards for Neural Systems for Sensory, Motor and higher brain functions at the ETHZ - ETH Zurich on StudySmarter:

what components are part of the central nervous system?

Exemplary flashcards for Neural Systems for Sensory, Motor and higher brain functions at the ETHZ - ETH Zurich on StudySmarter:

The visceral motor system can be broken down into two main divisions, which are they and what are their functions?

Exemplary flashcards for Neural Systems for Sensory, Motor and higher brain functions at the ETHZ - ETH Zurich on StudySmarter:

What is the somatotopic organisation of the cortex?

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Exemplary flashcards for Neural Systems for Sensory, Motor and higher brain functions at the ETHZ - ETH Zurich on StudySmarter:

How can nervous system structure and functions be probed?

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What are some important cell types of the somatosensory system?

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How is the dorsal root ganglia organized?

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What is a Dermatome?

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Exemplary flashcards for Neural Systems for Sensory, Motor and higher brain functions at the ETHZ - ETH Zurich on StudySmarter:

What is a receptive field?

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What is proprioception?

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What is plasticity?

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Which fibers are needed to transmit pain perception?

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what components are part of the peripheral nervous system?

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Exemplary flashcards for Neural Systems for Sensory, Motor and higher brain functions at the ETHZ - ETH Zurich on StudySmarter:

Neural Systems for Sensory, Motor and higher brain functions

what components are part of the central nervous system?

brain and spinal cord

the brain has different parts: 

cerebrum 

  • cerebral cortex
  • white matter 
  • basal ganglia

braistem

  • midbrain 
  • pons
  • medulla

diencephalon

  • Thalamus
  • hypothalamus
  • Hypophysis

spinal cord 

cerebellum

Neural Systems for Sensory, Motor and higher brain functions

The visceral motor system can be broken down into two main divisions, which are they and what are their functions?

sympathetic division

  • important for alert state/ when under stress
  • preganglionic Neurons are cholinergic
  • postganglionic Neurons are noradrenergic
  • ganglia are close to spinal cord

parasympathetic division

  • important for rest and digest session
  • pre- and post-ganflionic nerves are cholinergic
  • ganglia are close to organs

Neural Systems for Sensory, Motor and higher brain functions

What is the somatotopic organisation of the cortex?

Humunculus:represented map in neural system

NOT proportional to size of body but rather proportional to importance of tasks the perform

Neural Systems for Sensory, Motor and higher brain functions

How can nervous system structure and functions be probed?

anatomical tracing

  • IHC
  • FISH
  • GFP

electrophysiological recording

  • Field
  • Patch clamp
  • MEA

Brain imaging

  • MRI
  • PET
  • CT

Functional Lesioning

  • mechanical
  • pharmaceutical
  • opto-/chemogenetics

Neural Systems for Sensory, Motor and higher brain functions

What are some important cell types of the somatosensory system?

Mechanoreceptor

  • Meissner corpuscle
  • pacinian corpuscle
  • Ruffini's corpuscle
  • Merkel's Disk
  • Freenerve endings (beta-fibers: slow conducting, pain and temperature)

Muscle spindle: 

  • fast conducting axon, typ 1a and 1b

Neural Systems for Sensory, Motor and higher brain functions

How is the dorsal root ganglia organized?

The dorsal root ganglia is divided into cervical thoracic and sacral -> each reports to brain from a certain region of the body

major somatosensory afferent input

Mechanosensory afferent fibers:

dorsal root ganglion cells -> spinal cord ipsilateral (same side) -> medulla crosses midline (contralateral side) -> change of synapse -> midbrain -> thalamus -> change of synapse -> cortex

pain and temperature afferent fibres: 

dorsal root ganglion cells -> spinal cord (contralateral side) -> change of synapse -> through medulla and midbrain -> thalamus -> change of synapse -> cortex

Neural Systems for Sensory, Motor and higher brain functions

What is a Dermatome?

an area of skin supplied by nerves from a single spinal root (also divided into cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral)

-> if there are any deficiencies the can be pinpointed to the spinal cord region

Neural Systems for Sensory, Motor and higher brain functions

What is a receptive field?

region innervated by one sensory receptor neuron. Its stimulation activates specific region in cortex 

The fields are not constant, you can find lateral inhibition (reduction of activity of neighbour nerve -> probably for contrast purposes)

Neural Systems for Sensory, Motor and higher brain functions

What is proprioception?

perception/ awareness of the position and movement of the body 

Neural Systems for Sensory, Motor and higher brain functions

What is plasticity?

adaptability to change in its environment

The brain is adaptable: adjacent digits can compensate for the space -> bigger digits -> more stimulation

Neural Systems for Sensory, Motor and higher brain functions

Which fibers are needed to transmit pain perception?

A delta: acute (fast transmitting) pain

C-Type: chronic (slow transmitting) pain

Neural Systems for Sensory, Motor and higher brain functions

what components are part of the peripheral nervous system?

cranial nerves and spinal nerves

it is subdivided into sensory and motor (visceral and somatic) components

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