International Management at ESCP Europe Berlin | Flashcards & Summaries

Lernmaterialien für International Management an der ESCP Europe Berlin

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What is an international firm?

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- involved in foreign activities on a substantial scale 

- regular transactions with foreign economic entities 

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Quantitative Approaches (4)

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- Foreign Ratio 

- Internationalization Index 

- Internationalization Profile 

- Internationalization Degree

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Foreign ratio

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Foreign - Domestic - Operations (FDO) = foreign sales/domestic sales 

Foreign - Total - Operations (FTO) = foreign employees/total employees 


FDO > 100%: more sales in foreign countries 

FDO < 100%: more sales in domestic country   


FTO > 50%: more foreign employees

FTO < 50%: more domestic employees 

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Internationalization index

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- Arithmetic mean of several foreign ratios, e.g.:

- Trans- nationality Index (UNCTAD) = mean average of the three FTO ratios for assets, employees, and sales

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Degree of Internationalization

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Each firm has a particular degree. The indicators of a firm are at different levels of internationalization.


- No consistent quantitative operationalization, often equated with a particular foreign ratio or a specific internationalization index


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are in your opinion the problems and limits of quantitative approaches when describing the internationality of a firm?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • intangible assets
  • how they form workers
  • numbers do not reflect mentality: maybe they do not reflect the market of a country
  • you cannot explain human behavior in a quantitative manner
  • difficult to understand context of a phenomenon
  • all these ratios depend on the industry, for example sets are more important in some industries compared to others
  • another issue is availability of data, we are not sure if it is always available and especially if it is accurate
  • difference if the company delegates decisions or if decisions are taken at the headquarter
  • we don’t know in what countries is the company: could be in China and US? Could be in Spain and Italy?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The ratios are useful, but we need to take into consideration many things when we interpret them

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- Example size of home country = US firms have slightly lower ratios compared to others

- For efficiency reasons sometimes you need to go abroad

- Take into consideration exchange rates and accounting practices.

- Some problems will be solved thanks to the qualitative approaches

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Qualitative approaches to the international firm (2 concepts)

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EPRG concept (Perlmutter)

IMGT concept (Barlett/Goshal)

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EPRG 

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Ethnocentric 

Polycentric 

Regiocentric

Geocentric 

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Ethnocentirc

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

will always have a priority for the people from home country; the French firm would develop lots of French people, educated and trained in France, would be then sent abroad. What would they use? Expatriates to manage the operations. Taking main decisions in headquarters at home because they think the home country is superior to the rest of the world.

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Polycentric

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would develop people of host countries; if another French firm is polycentirc will have german people to manage the German subsidiary

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What is international Management 

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- Management of an international firm in an integrative way 

- Strategy, Structure and culture 

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Q:

What is an international firm?

A:

- involved in foreign activities on a substantial scale 

- regular transactions with foreign economic entities 

Q:

Quantitative Approaches (4)

A:

- Foreign Ratio 

- Internationalization Index 

- Internationalization Profile 

- Internationalization Degree

Q:

Foreign ratio

A:

Foreign - Domestic - Operations (FDO) = foreign sales/domestic sales 

Foreign - Total - Operations (FTO) = foreign employees/total employees 


FDO > 100%: more sales in foreign countries 

FDO < 100%: more sales in domestic country   


FTO > 50%: more foreign employees

FTO < 50%: more domestic employees 

Q:

Internationalization index

A:

- Arithmetic mean of several foreign ratios, e.g.:

- Trans- nationality Index (UNCTAD) = mean average of the three FTO ratios for assets, employees, and sales

Q:

Degree of Internationalization

A:

Each firm has a particular degree. The indicators of a firm are at different levels of internationalization.


- No consistent quantitative operationalization, often equated with a particular foreign ratio or a specific internationalization index


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Q:

What are in your opinion the problems and limits of quantitative approaches when describing the internationality of a firm?

A:
  • intangible assets
  • how they form workers
  • numbers do not reflect mentality: maybe they do not reflect the market of a country
  • you cannot explain human behavior in a quantitative manner
  • difficult to understand context of a phenomenon
  • all these ratios depend on the industry, for example sets are more important in some industries compared to others
  • another issue is availability of data, we are not sure if it is always available and especially if it is accurate
  • difference if the company delegates decisions or if decisions are taken at the headquarter
  • we don’t know in what countries is the company: could be in China and US? Could be in Spain and Italy?
Q:

The ratios are useful, but we need to take into consideration many things when we interpret them

A:

- Example size of home country = US firms have slightly lower ratios compared to others

- For efficiency reasons sometimes you need to go abroad

- Take into consideration exchange rates and accounting practices.

- Some problems will be solved thanks to the qualitative approaches

Q:

Qualitative approaches to the international firm (2 concepts)

A:

EPRG concept (Perlmutter)

IMGT concept (Barlett/Goshal)

Q:

EPRG 

A:

Ethnocentric 

Polycentric 

Regiocentric

Geocentric 

Q:

Ethnocentirc

A:

will always have a priority for the people from home country; the French firm would develop lots of French people, educated and trained in France, would be then sent abroad. What would they use? Expatriates to manage the operations. Taking main decisions in headquarters at home because they think the home country is superior to the rest of the world.

Q:

Polycentric

A:

would develop people of host countries; if another French firm is polycentirc will have german people to manage the German subsidiary

Q:

What is international Management 

A:

- Management of an international firm in an integrative way 

- Strategy, Structure and culture 

International Management

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