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(corrosion)


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deterioration by dissolution

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What are the types of dislocations ?
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  • An edge dislocation. An extra portion of a plane of atoms or half-plane of atoms is introduced midway through the crystal, distorting nearby planes of atoms 
  • a screw dislocation. The upper front region of the crystal is shifted 
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3D OpticSELINE

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visual prosthesis based on optic-nerve stimulation.


polyimide-based looped electrode array designed in agreement with the anatomical structure of the rabbit’s optic nerve

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PVD: Evaporation and sputtering

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is a group of deposition processes to controllably prepare thin films

coating material is placed inside a vacuum coating system as a solid “target”. Argon plasma is ignited in the vacuum chamber with the target as anode of the plasma discharge. This leads to a heavy bombardment of the target surface with Argon ions. As a consequence material is sputtered from the target surface into gaseous phase, from which it condensates on the substrate surface. One major advantage of the sputter deposition method is the ability to coat substrates at low process temperatures.

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parameters of crystallographic planes 
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1. If  it  passes  through  the  origin  (O),  another  parallel  plane must  be  constructed  by  a  translation,  or  a  new  origin  must be established at the corner of another unit cell.

2. The  plane  either  intersects  or  parallels  each  of  the  three axes; the length of the intercept is determined in terms of a, b, and c.
3. The reciprocals of these numbers are taken.
4. These  numbers  are  changed  to  the  smallest  integers  by multiplication or division.
5. The integer indices, not separated by commas, are enclosed within parentheses, thus: (hkl).


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Polycrystalline
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Crystalline solid composed of a collection of many small crystals or grains
small crystals or nuclei form at various positions with random orientations 
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Why study crystalline structure of a solid ?
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Significant  property  differences  exist  between  crystalline  and  noncrystalline  materials having the same composition.
Metals  normally  form  crystalline  solids,  but  some  ceramic  materials  are  crystalline, whereas  others  (the  inorganic  glasses)  are  amorphous.  Polymers  may  be  completely noncrystalline and semicrystalline consisting of varying degrees of crystallinity
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Classification of crystalline imperfections 
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Point defects: vacancy atoms, interstitial atoms, substitutional atoms 
linear defects: dislocations 
area defects: grain boundaries 
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What is a polymorphic material ?
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Material having more than a crystal structure 
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Substitution also solid solutions, Hume-Rotherham rules 
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    ◦ Atomic size factor. The difference in atomic radii between the two atom types is less than about ±15%. Otherwise the solute atoms will create substantial lattice distortions and a new phase will form.
    ◦ The Crystal structure of both components must be the same.
    ◦ Electronegativity.  The  higher  is  the  difference,  the  greater  is  the  likelihood  that  they  will  form  an intermetallic compound instead of a solid solution.
    ◦ Valences. Other factors being equal, a metal will have more of a tendency to dissolve another metal of higher valency than one of a lower valency.
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What is a dislocation ?
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Is a linear defect around which some of the atoms are misaligned. They are involved in plastic deformation of crystalline materials. 
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Isotropical behaviour 
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The crystallographic orientations of individual grains are totally random 
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Q:

(corrosion)


A:

deterioration by dissolution

Q:
What are the types of dislocations ?
A:
  • An edge dislocation. An extra portion of a plane of atoms or half-plane of atoms is introduced midway through the crystal, distorting nearby planes of atoms 
  • a screw dislocation. The upper front region of the crystal is shifted 
Q:


3D OpticSELINE

A:

visual prosthesis based on optic-nerve stimulation.


polyimide-based looped electrode array designed in agreement with the anatomical structure of the rabbit’s optic nerve

Q:


PVD: Evaporation and sputtering

A:

is a group of deposition processes to controllably prepare thin films

coating material is placed inside a vacuum coating system as a solid “target”. Argon plasma is ignited in the vacuum chamber with the target as anode of the plasma discharge. This leads to a heavy bombardment of the target surface with Argon ions. As a consequence material is sputtered from the target surface into gaseous phase, from which it condensates on the substrate surface. One major advantage of the sputter deposition method is the ability to coat substrates at low process temperatures.

Q:
parameters of crystallographic planes 
A:
1. If  it  passes  through  the  origin  (O),  another  parallel  plane must  be  constructed  by  a  translation,  or  a  new  origin  must be established at the corner of another unit cell.

2. The  plane  either  intersects  or  parallels  each  of  the  three axes; the length of the intercept is determined in terms of a, b, and c.
3. The reciprocals of these numbers are taken.
4. These  numbers  are  changed  to  the  smallest  integers  by multiplication or division.
5. The integer indices, not separated by commas, are enclosed within parentheses, thus: (hkl).


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Q:
Polycrystalline
A:
Crystalline solid composed of a collection of many small crystals or grains
small crystals or nuclei form at various positions with random orientations 
Q:
Why study crystalline structure of a solid ?
A:
Significant  property  differences  exist  between  crystalline  and  noncrystalline  materials having the same composition.
Metals  normally  form  crystalline  solids,  but  some  ceramic  materials  are  crystalline, whereas  others  (the  inorganic  glasses)  are  amorphous.  Polymers  may  be  completely noncrystalline and semicrystalline consisting of varying degrees of crystallinity
Q:
Classification of crystalline imperfections 
A:
Point defects: vacancy atoms, interstitial atoms, substitutional atoms 
linear defects: dislocations 
area defects: grain boundaries 
Q:
What is a polymorphic material ?
A:
Material having more than a crystal structure 
Q:
Substitution also solid solutions, Hume-Rotherham rules 
A:
    ◦ Atomic size factor. The difference in atomic radii between the two atom types is less than about ±15%. Otherwise the solute atoms will create substantial lattice distortions and a new phase will form.
    ◦ The Crystal structure of both components must be the same.
    ◦ Electronegativity.  The  higher  is  the  difference,  the  greater  is  the  likelihood  that  they  will  form  an intermetallic compound instead of a solid solution.
    ◦ Valences. Other factors being equal, a metal will have more of a tendency to dissolve another metal of higher valency than one of a lower valency.
Q:
What is a dislocation ?
A:
Is a linear defect around which some of the atoms are misaligned. They are involved in plastic deformation of crystalline materials. 
Q:
Isotropical behaviour 
A:
The crystallographic orientations of individual grains are totally random 
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