Respiratory Conditions at Cardiff University | Flashcards & Summaries

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Lernmaterialien für Respiratory Conditions an der Cardiff University

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are seven causes of central cyanosis 
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Abnormal haemoglobin 

COPD

Polycythaemia

Altitude

Lung disease 

Metsulfahaemoglobinemia

Shunting 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What 3 things does silicosis show on a chest x ray
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Bilateral Nodular opacities particularly in the upper lobes with irregular margins 

Eggshell clarification of the hilar lymph nodes

Plural thickening


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What causes the crackle sound 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Small airways popping open in inspiration and collapsing due to loose secretions or lack of aerations in expiration 


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are coarse crackles 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Discontinuous, brief popping sounds present in early inspiration 

They are louder, more low pitched and longer lasting 

They are indicative of excessive fluid on the lungs due to aspiration from oedema, pneumonia and bronchiectasis 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
When are early inspiration crackles heard
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
In proximal and larger airways with a low pitched sound 

These are unchanged by posture or coughing 

These are associated with COPD, chronic bronchitis and asthma 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What does COVID-19 cause

(5 things)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Submucosal inflammation which narrows the lumen of the trachea reducing ventilation due to increased resistance

This increases the work of breathing

It may also cause diffuse alveolar damage where air spaces are limited due to fibrotic tissue and oedema which impairs gas exchange as surface area is reduced

This can also affect the elasticity of the tissue reducing the functional volume of the lung

There may also be microthrombi in pulmonary vessels which reduces oxygen supply to the smooth-muscle of the lungs this impairs gas exchange and causes increased pressure in pulmonary circulation which can lead to pulmonary oedema
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are six symptoms of cor pulmonale
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Shortness of breath on exertion or at rest when severe 

Cyansois

Ascities

Peripheral oedema in the feet and ankles 

Enlargement of the prominent beck and facial veins 

Raised JVP


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How can hypoxaemia be measured

(3 ways)
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Using a blood sample from the arterial blood supply from the wrist which shows hypoxaemia if oxygen partial pressure is less than 8KPA or 55 mmHg

Oxygen saturation if it is below 94%

Oxygen haemoglobin saturation curve if percentage saturation falls below 90
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
How can rib fractures and punctures be treated

(2 ways)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Insert a chest drain above the rib to avoid injury to the nerves

Insert an intercostal nerve block below the rib to help relieve pain which is used after a rib fracture abdominal or chest surgery and after a masecotomy
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is a haemothorax
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
When the pleural cavity is filled with blood
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What pathophysiology occurs in pneumoconiosis
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Small black particles appear throughout the tissue and there is a large accumulation of particles engulfed by macrophages for elimination by the lymphatic system

There is evidence of immune cell infiltration 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What is the risk of a rib fracture
Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Can puncture a lung or plural membrane leading to blood collecting in the pleura 
Lösung ausblenden
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Q:
What are seven causes of central cyanosis 
A:
Abnormal haemoglobin 

COPD

Polycythaemia

Altitude

Lung disease 

Metsulfahaemoglobinemia

Shunting 
Q:
What 3 things does silicosis show on a chest x ray
A:
Bilateral Nodular opacities particularly in the upper lobes with irregular margins 

Eggshell clarification of the hilar lymph nodes

Plural thickening


Q:
What causes the crackle sound 
A:
Small airways popping open in inspiration and collapsing due to loose secretions or lack of aerations in expiration 


Q:
What are coarse crackles 
A:
Discontinuous, brief popping sounds present in early inspiration 

They are louder, more low pitched and longer lasting 

They are indicative of excessive fluid on the lungs due to aspiration from oedema, pneumonia and bronchiectasis 
Q:
When are early inspiration crackles heard
A:
In proximal and larger airways with a low pitched sound 

These are unchanged by posture or coughing 

These are associated with COPD, chronic bronchitis and asthma 
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
What does COVID-19 cause

(5 things)
A:
Submucosal inflammation which narrows the lumen of the trachea reducing ventilation due to increased resistance

This increases the work of breathing

It may also cause diffuse alveolar damage where air spaces are limited due to fibrotic tissue and oedema which impairs gas exchange as surface area is reduced

This can also affect the elasticity of the tissue reducing the functional volume of the lung

There may also be microthrombi in pulmonary vessels which reduces oxygen supply to the smooth-muscle of the lungs this impairs gas exchange and causes increased pressure in pulmonary circulation which can lead to pulmonary oedema
Q:
What are six symptoms of cor pulmonale
A:
Shortness of breath on exertion or at rest when severe 

Cyansois

Ascities

Peripheral oedema in the feet and ankles 

Enlargement of the prominent beck and facial veins 

Raised JVP


Q:
How can hypoxaemia be measured

(3 ways)
A:
Using a blood sample from the arterial blood supply from the wrist which shows hypoxaemia if oxygen partial pressure is less than 8KPA or 55 mmHg

Oxygen saturation if it is below 94%

Oxygen haemoglobin saturation curve if percentage saturation falls below 90
Q:
How can rib fractures and punctures be treated

(2 ways)
A:
Insert a chest drain above the rib to avoid injury to the nerves

Insert an intercostal nerve block below the rib to help relieve pain which is used after a rib fracture abdominal or chest surgery and after a masecotomy
Q:
What is a haemothorax
A:
When the pleural cavity is filled with blood
Q:
What pathophysiology occurs in pneumoconiosis
A:
Small black particles appear throughout the tissue and there is a large accumulation of particles engulfed by macrophages for elimination by the lymphatic system

There is evidence of immune cell infiltration 
Q:
What is the risk of a rib fracture
A:
Can puncture a lung or plural membrane leading to blood collecting in the pleura 
Respiratory Conditions

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