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What Is a Dermatome? 


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A dermatome is the area of the skin of the human anatomy that is mainly supplied by branches of a single spinal sensory nerve root. These spinal sensory nerves enter the nerve root at the spinal cord, and their branches reach to the outside areas of the body. The sensory nerves in that area are a type of nerve that transmits signals from sensations (for example, pain symptoms, touch, temperature) to the spinal cord from specific areas of our anatomy.

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How many pairs of cranial and spinal nerves are there?

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12 pairs of cranial nerves 

31 pairs of Spinal nerves ( 8C 12T 5L 5S 1C)

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 GDNF


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Glial-derived neurotrophic factor.

Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the GDNF gene. GDNF is a small protein that potently promotes the survival of many types of neurons. It signals through GFRα receptors, particularly GFRα1.

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Spinal nerves

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The 31 pairs of peripheral spinal nerves emerge from the spinal cord through spaces between the vertebrae. 

Each nerve divides and subdivides into a number of branches; the dorsal branches serve the rear portion of the body, while the ventral serve the front and sides. The branches of one spinal nerve may join with other nerves to form meshes called plexuses where information is shared. The plexuses send signals along secondary nerve branches to areas of complex function or movement.

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Nitrites are of significant toxicologic importance because they cause methemoglobinemia at high blood concentrations.

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true 

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Maintenance dose

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The dose required for regular administration to maintain a target plasma level. Because this requires restoring the amount of drug lost to elimination (clearance, CL), the calculation uses the clearance equation as:

 Maintenance dose = Cp(target) × CL; has units of mg per time

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Ffggt
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Vffg
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Ic 

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Strong Mechanism 


  1. Pronounced reduction in phase 0 slope 
  2. No effect on APD or ERP 

C. Marked decrease in dv/dt of 0 phase Propafenone, Flecainide

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Furosemide
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  • Prototype Drug
  • Rapidly acting, highly efficacious oral diuretic
  • Maximal natriuretic effect.
  • The diuretic response goes on increasing as increasing done up to 10L of urine/day 
  • Active even in patients with relatively severe renal failure.

MAJOR SITE OF ACTION
THICK ASCENDING LOOP OF HENLE
Inhibits Na+ K+ 2Cl- transport
  • It is secreted in PT by organic anion transport  and reaches AscLH, where it acts from the luminal side of the membrane.  
  • Osmotic clearance is abolished and positive as well as negative free water clearance is blocked. 
  • K+ excretion is increased mainly due to Na+ load reaching PT.  
  • Equip natriuretic doses, K+ loss is less than that of work thiazides. 
  • Furosemide has weak Case inhibitory action increases HCO3- EXCRETION 
  • Acidosis does not develop.   
  • Urinary PH may rise but the predominant urinary anion is Cl- 
  • Mild alkalosis occurs at high doses 


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A Physiologic Antagonist

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  • A physiologic antagonist binds to a different receptor molecule, producing an effect opposite to that produced by the drug it antagonizes. 
  • Thus, it differs from a pharmacologic antagonist, which interacts with the same receptor as the drug it inhibits.
  •  Typical examples of physiologic antagonists are the antagonism of the bronchoconstrictor action of histamine by epinephrine’s bronchodilator action and glucagon’s antagonism of the cardiac depressant effects of propranolol.
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• Nitrates have no direct stimulant or depressant action on the heart.

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True 

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Receptors should be 

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  • selective in their ligand-binding characteristics.
  • modifiable when they bind a drug molecule

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  • 487 Studierende
  • 5 Lernmaterialien

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Q:

What Is a Dermatome? 


A:

A dermatome is the area of the skin of the human anatomy that is mainly supplied by branches of a single spinal sensory nerve root. These spinal sensory nerves enter the nerve root at the spinal cord, and their branches reach to the outside areas of the body. The sensory nerves in that area are a type of nerve that transmits signals from sensations (for example, pain symptoms, touch, temperature) to the spinal cord from specific areas of our anatomy.

Q:

How many pairs of cranial and spinal nerves are there?

A:

12 pairs of cranial nerves 

31 pairs of Spinal nerves ( 8C 12T 5L 5S 1C)

Q:

 GDNF


A:

Glial-derived neurotrophic factor.

Glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the GDNF gene. GDNF is a small protein that potently promotes the survival of many types of neurons. It signals through GFRα receptors, particularly GFRα1.

Q:

Spinal nerves

A:

The 31 pairs of peripheral spinal nerves emerge from the spinal cord through spaces between the vertebrae. 

Each nerve divides and subdivides into a number of branches; the dorsal branches serve the rear portion of the body, while the ventral serve the front and sides. The branches of one spinal nerve may join with other nerves to form meshes called plexuses where information is shared. The plexuses send signals along secondary nerve branches to areas of complex function or movement.

Q:

Nitrites are of significant toxicologic importance because they cause methemoglobinemia at high blood concentrations.

A:

true 

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Q:

Maintenance dose

A:

The dose required for regular administration to maintain a target plasma level. Because this requires restoring the amount of drug lost to elimination (clearance, CL), the calculation uses the clearance equation as:

 Maintenance dose = Cp(target) × CL; has units of mg per time

Q:
Ffggt
A:
Vffg
Q:

Ic 

A:

Strong Mechanism 


  1. Pronounced reduction in phase 0 slope 
  2. No effect on APD or ERP 

C. Marked decrease in dv/dt of 0 phase Propafenone, Flecainide

Q:
Furosemide
A:
  • Prototype Drug
  • Rapidly acting, highly efficacious oral diuretic
  • Maximal natriuretic effect.
  • The diuretic response goes on increasing as increasing done up to 10L of urine/day 
  • Active even in patients with relatively severe renal failure.

MAJOR SITE OF ACTION
THICK ASCENDING LOOP OF HENLE
Inhibits Na+ K+ 2Cl- transport
  • It is secreted in PT by organic anion transport  and reaches AscLH, where it acts from the luminal side of the membrane.  
  • Osmotic clearance is abolished and positive as well as negative free water clearance is blocked. 
  • K+ excretion is increased mainly due to Na+ load reaching PT.  
  • Equip natriuretic doses, K+ loss is less than that of work thiazides. 
  • Furosemide has weak Case inhibitory action increases HCO3- EXCRETION 
  • Acidosis does not develop.   
  • Urinary PH may rise but the predominant urinary anion is Cl- 
  • Mild alkalosis occurs at high doses 


Q:

A Physiologic Antagonist

A:
  • A physiologic antagonist binds to a different receptor molecule, producing an effect opposite to that produced by the drug it antagonizes. 
  • Thus, it differs from a pharmacologic antagonist, which interacts with the same receptor as the drug it inhibits.
  •  Typical examples of physiologic antagonists are the antagonism of the bronchoconstrictor action of histamine by epinephrine’s bronchodilator action and glucagon’s antagonism of the cardiac depressant effects of propranolol.
Q:

• Nitrates have no direct stimulant or depressant action on the heart.

A:

True 

Q:

Receptors should be 

A:
  • selective in their ligand-binding characteristics.
  • modifiable when they bind a drug molecule

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