Anatomy Muscular an der University Of Western Australia | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für Anatomy Muscular an der University of Western Australia

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the three main types of muscle?
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  • Smooth
  • Cardiac
  • Skeletal
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Smooth muscle makeup
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  • Involuntary movement
  • Cell structure: tapered ends, non-striated, single central nucleus
  • Stimulated by nerve impulses, hormones and stretching
  • Makes up walls of hollow body organs, respiratory passages
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Cardiac muscle makeup
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  • Involuntary movement
  • Cell structure: striated, single central nucleus, branching interconnections, membranes are intercalated disks
  • Stimulated by electrical impulses, nervous stimuli, hormones
  • Makes up wall of the heart 
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Skeletal muscle makeup
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  • Voluntary movement
  • Cell structure: heavily striated, multiple nuclei per cell, long and cylindrical
  • Stimulated by nervous system
  • Attached to bones, muscle or skin

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Primary functions of the muscular system
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  • Skeletal movement
  • Posture maintainence
  • Heat generation
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What are the properties of muscle tissue? (4)
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  • Excitability: ability to respond to a stimuli
  • Elasticity: ability to return to its original length
  • Extensibility: ability to be stretched without being damaged
  • Contractility: ability to contract forcefully when stimulated by an action potential
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A motor unit is?
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A single neuron and all the muscle fibres it stimulates
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The roles of calcium in muscle (4)
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  • Is released when nerve fibre stimulates muscle cell
  • Attaches to proteins blocking receptor sites
  • Allows cross-bridges to form between actin and myosin
  • Returns to sarcoplasmic reticulum
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Energy sources for muscles
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Muscle contraction requires energy (ATP), oxidised in muscle cells from oxygen, glucose or other usable nutrients
Compounds in muscle cells that store energy, oxygen or nutrients: myoglobin, glycogen, creatine phosphate
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Oxygen consumption metabolism
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  • Aerobic glucose metabolism
  • Anaerobic glucose metabolism: inefficient production, lactic acid accumulation, oxygen debt, recovery oxygen consumption
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Effects of exercise (8)
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  • Improved balance and joint flexibility
  • Hypertrophy (increase in muscle size)
  • Improvements in muscle tissue
  • Vasodilation
  • Strengthened heart muscle
  • Improved breathing and respiratory efficiency
  • Weight control
  • Stronger bones
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
What are the three types of muscle contractions?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Partial (muscle tone or tonus)
  • Isotonic (no change in tension, muscle length shortens, movement) e.g. pull ups
  • Isometric (great increase in tension, muscle length unchanged, no movement) e.g. wall sit, glute bridge hold
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Q:
What are the three main types of muscle?
A:
  • Smooth
  • Cardiac
  • Skeletal
Q:
Smooth muscle makeup
A:
  • Involuntary movement
  • Cell structure: tapered ends, non-striated, single central nucleus
  • Stimulated by nerve impulses, hormones and stretching
  • Makes up walls of hollow body organs, respiratory passages
Q:
Cardiac muscle makeup
A:
  • Involuntary movement
  • Cell structure: striated, single central nucleus, branching interconnections, membranes are intercalated disks
  • Stimulated by electrical impulses, nervous stimuli, hormones
  • Makes up wall of the heart 
Q:
Skeletal muscle makeup
A:
  • Voluntary movement
  • Cell structure: heavily striated, multiple nuclei per cell, long and cylindrical
  • Stimulated by nervous system
  • Attached to bones, muscle or skin

Q:
Primary functions of the muscular system
A:
  • Skeletal movement
  • Posture maintainence
  • Heat generation
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
What are the properties of muscle tissue? (4)
A:
  • Excitability: ability to respond to a stimuli
  • Elasticity: ability to return to its original length
  • Extensibility: ability to be stretched without being damaged
  • Contractility: ability to contract forcefully when stimulated by an action potential
Q:
A motor unit is?
A:
A single neuron and all the muscle fibres it stimulates
Q:
The roles of calcium in muscle (4)
A:
  • Is released when nerve fibre stimulates muscle cell
  • Attaches to proteins blocking receptor sites
  • Allows cross-bridges to form between actin and myosin
  • Returns to sarcoplasmic reticulum
Q:
Energy sources for muscles
A:
Muscle contraction requires energy (ATP), oxidised in muscle cells from oxygen, glucose or other usable nutrients
Compounds in muscle cells that store energy, oxygen or nutrients: myoglobin, glycogen, creatine phosphate
Q:
Oxygen consumption metabolism
A:
  • Aerobic glucose metabolism
  • Anaerobic glucose metabolism: inefficient production, lactic acid accumulation, oxygen debt, recovery oxygen consumption
Q:
Effects of exercise (8)
A:
  • Improved balance and joint flexibility
  • Hypertrophy (increase in muscle size)
  • Improvements in muscle tissue
  • Vasodilation
  • Strengthened heart muscle
  • Improved breathing and respiratory efficiency
  • Weight control
  • Stronger bones
Q:
What are the three types of muscle contractions?
A:
  • Partial (muscle tone or tonus)
  • Isotonic (no change in tension, muscle length shortens, movement) e.g. pull ups
  • Isometric (great increase in tension, muscle length unchanged, no movement) e.g. wall sit, glute bridge hold
Anatomy Muscular

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