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Lernmaterialien für Module 4 (Subtest 1) an der University of Twente

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The origins of psychodynamic counselling: the work of Sigmund Freud

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- Freud began with patients suffering from ‘hysteria’ = emotionally disturbed

- ‘free association’ = ‘say whatever comes to mind’ = ‘the talking cure’

- psychoanalysis = Freud's method

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The main distinctive features of the psychodynamic approach are?

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1. An assumption that the client’s difficulties have their ultimate origins in childhood experiences.
2. An assumption that the client may not be consciously aware of the true motives or impulses behind his or her actions.
3. The use in counselling and therapy of interpretation of the transference relationship.

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Childhood origins of emotional problems

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Freud & free association: many of his patients reported remembering unpleasant or fearful sexual experiences in childhood --> roots in the child’s own sexual needs (Freud's interpretation)

- Freud meant by ‘sexual’ something like ‘life force’ or ‘emotional energy’


The child develops or matures through a number of distinct phases:

- oral

- anal

- phallic stage (immature genital longing, which is directed at members of the opposite sex)

- latency stage (child’s sexuality became less important in older childhood)


conflicts between the child and its environment (parents)

- too controlling or not controlling enough --> ‘good enough’ mother

potty training conflict

- primitive genital impulses for opposite-sex parent & rivalry with the same-sex parent

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Emphasize of psycho-social development in psychodynmaic approach.

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- psychoanalysis emphasized psycho-sexual nature of childhood development, but what really influences the child emotionally and psychologically as he or she grows up is the quality of the relationships he or she has with his or her parents and family.

- psycho-social development of the child rather than the sexual and biological aspects

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Erik Erikson's first stage of psycho-social development.

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- equivalent to Freud's oral stage

- sense of trust or mistrust (if basic needs are met or not)

- foundation for later relationships

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John Bowlby's view on psycho-social events during childhood.

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- attachment: experience of attachment and loss in childhood can shape the person’s capacity for forming attachments in adult life

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The importance of the ‘unconscious’.

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Freud saw the human mind as divided into three regions:

● The id (‘it’), a reservoir of primitive instincts and impulses that are the ultimate motives for our behaviour. Freud assumed that there were two core driveslife/love/sex/Eros and death/hate/aggression/Thanatos. The id has no time dimension, so that memories trapped there through repression can be as powerful as when the repressed event first happened. The id is governed by the ‘pleasure principle’, and is irrational.
● The ego (‘I’), the conscious, rational part of the mind, which makes decisions and deals with external reality.
● The superego (‘above I’), the ‘conscience’, the store-house of rules and taboos about what you should and should not do. The attitudes a person has in the superego are mainly an internalization of his or her parents’ attitudes.


- id and most of the superego were seen by Freud as being largely unconscious

- the ego and the other regions (the id and superego) are, potentially at any rate, almost constantly in conflict with each other


--> development of defence mechanisms

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The concept of transference

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- the conscious and unconscious responses – both affective and cognitive – of the patient to the therapist

- the unconscious transferring of past relationship into the present, especially as it appears in the psychoanalytic or psychotherapeutic setting. Transference is both positive, with the patient feeling love and dependency on the analyst as the giving, nurturing, perhaps sexually exciting parent; and also negative, with the analyst being experienced as the with holding, forbidding and cruel parent.


- exploration of transference reactions & the counter-transference response of the therapist

- re-enactment of the original scenarios

- therapist should ‘behave differently from the original characters in the patient’s life drama’

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The mechanisms of defence

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- ways in which the ego defends itself against emotionally threatening unconscious impulses and wishes


The key defence mechanisms described by Anna Freud:

● Repression (motivated forgetting): the instant removal from awareness of any threatening impulse, idea or memory.
● Denial (motivated negation): blocking of external events and information from awareness.
● Projection (displacement outwards): attributing to another person one’s own unacceptable desires or thoughts.
● Displacement (redirection of impulses): channelling impulses (typically aggressive ones) on to a different target.
● Reaction formation (asserting the opposite): defending against unacceptable impulses by turning them into the opposite.
● Sublimation (finding an acceptable substitute): transforming an impulse into a more socially acceptable form of behaviour.
● Regression (developmental retreat): responding to internal feelings triggered by an external threat by reverting to ‘child- like’ behaviour from an earlier stage of development.

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The therapeutic techniques used in psychoanalysis

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- ‘where id was, let ego be’

- rather than being driven by unconscious forces and impulses, people after therapy will be more rational, more aware of their inner emotional life and more able to control these feelings in an appropriate manner.

- achievement of insight into the true nature of one’s problems

‘catharsis’: release of the emotional tension


There are a number of therapeutic techniques or strategies used in psychoanalytic or psychodynamic therapy:

1. Systematic use of the relationship between the counsellor and client (‘blank screen’, authority figures, transference, re-enactment, becoming aware of projections)

2. Identifying and analysing resistances and defences (source of resistance)

3. Free association or ‘saying whatever comes to mind’ (less influenced by defence mechanisms, person’s ‘truth’)

4. Working on dreams and fantasies (dreams symbolically represent people, impulses or situations in the dreamer’s waking life, imagination)

5. Interpretation (understand the origins of problems)

6. Other miscellaneous techniques (toys and play, expressive techniques, projective techniques, diaries or autobiographies)

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The post-Freudian evolution of the psychodynamic approach

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Disagreement between Freud and Jung about motivation:

Jung argued that human beings have a drive towards ‘individuation’, or the integration and fulfilment of self, as well as more biologically based drives associated with sexuality. Jung also viewed the unconscious as encompassing spiritual and transcendental areas of meaning.


Disagreement with...

- Ferenczi and Rank about therapeutical techniques

- Reich pursued the bodily, organismic roots of defences

- Adler studied significance of social factors in emotional life


Underlying quetions were:

● What happens in the early years of life to produce later problems?
● How do unconscious processes and mechanisms operate?
● What should the therapist do to make psychoanalytic therapy most effective for patients or clients (the question of technique)?


Evolution of the psychodynamic approach since Freud's death:

- object relation approach

- work of the British 'Independents'

- refinements of technique and therapy on a time-limited basis

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Goals of the psychodynamic approach?

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- explore the types of feelings and relationship dilemmas that have caused difficulties for the client in his or her everyday life

- help clients to achieve insight and understanding around the reasons for their problems, and translate this insight into a mature capacity to cope with current and future difficulties

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Q:

The origins of psychodynamic counselling: the work of Sigmund Freud

A:

- Freud began with patients suffering from ‘hysteria’ = emotionally disturbed

- ‘free association’ = ‘say whatever comes to mind’ = ‘the talking cure’

- psychoanalysis = Freud's method

Q:

The main distinctive features of the psychodynamic approach are?

A:

1. An assumption that the client’s difficulties have their ultimate origins in childhood experiences.
2. An assumption that the client may not be consciously aware of the true motives or impulses behind his or her actions.
3. The use in counselling and therapy of interpretation of the transference relationship.

Q:

Childhood origins of emotional problems

A:

Freud & free association: many of his patients reported remembering unpleasant or fearful sexual experiences in childhood --> roots in the child’s own sexual needs (Freud's interpretation)

- Freud meant by ‘sexual’ something like ‘life force’ or ‘emotional energy’


The child develops or matures through a number of distinct phases:

- oral

- anal

- phallic stage (immature genital longing, which is directed at members of the opposite sex)

- latency stage (child’s sexuality became less important in older childhood)


conflicts between the child and its environment (parents)

- too controlling or not controlling enough --> ‘good enough’ mother

potty training conflict

- primitive genital impulses for opposite-sex parent & rivalry with the same-sex parent

Q:

Emphasize of psycho-social development in psychodynmaic approach.

A:

- psychoanalysis emphasized psycho-sexual nature of childhood development, but what really influences the child emotionally and psychologically as he or she grows up is the quality of the relationships he or she has with his or her parents and family.

- psycho-social development of the child rather than the sexual and biological aspects

Q:

Erik Erikson's first stage of psycho-social development.

A:

- equivalent to Freud's oral stage

- sense of trust or mistrust (if basic needs are met or not)

- foundation for later relationships

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

John Bowlby's view on psycho-social events during childhood.

A:

- attachment: experience of attachment and loss in childhood can shape the person’s capacity for forming attachments in adult life

Q:

The importance of the ‘unconscious’.

A:

Freud saw the human mind as divided into three regions:

● The id (‘it’), a reservoir of primitive instincts and impulses that are the ultimate motives for our behaviour. Freud assumed that there were two core driveslife/love/sex/Eros and death/hate/aggression/Thanatos. The id has no time dimension, so that memories trapped there through repression can be as powerful as when the repressed event first happened. The id is governed by the ‘pleasure principle’, and is irrational.
● The ego (‘I’), the conscious, rational part of the mind, which makes decisions and deals with external reality.
● The superego (‘above I’), the ‘conscience’, the store-house of rules and taboos about what you should and should not do. The attitudes a person has in the superego are mainly an internalization of his or her parents’ attitudes.


- id and most of the superego were seen by Freud as being largely unconscious

- the ego and the other regions (the id and superego) are, potentially at any rate, almost constantly in conflict with each other


--> development of defence mechanisms

Q:

The concept of transference

A:

- the conscious and unconscious responses – both affective and cognitive – of the patient to the therapist

- the unconscious transferring of past relationship into the present, especially as it appears in the psychoanalytic or psychotherapeutic setting. Transference is both positive, with the patient feeling love and dependency on the analyst as the giving, nurturing, perhaps sexually exciting parent; and also negative, with the analyst being experienced as the with holding, forbidding and cruel parent.


- exploration of transference reactions & the counter-transference response of the therapist

- re-enactment of the original scenarios

- therapist should ‘behave differently from the original characters in the patient’s life drama’

Q:

The mechanisms of defence

A:

- ways in which the ego defends itself against emotionally threatening unconscious impulses and wishes


The key defence mechanisms described by Anna Freud:

● Repression (motivated forgetting): the instant removal from awareness of any threatening impulse, idea or memory.
● Denial (motivated negation): blocking of external events and information from awareness.
● Projection (displacement outwards): attributing to another person one’s own unacceptable desires or thoughts.
● Displacement (redirection of impulses): channelling impulses (typically aggressive ones) on to a different target.
● Reaction formation (asserting the opposite): defending against unacceptable impulses by turning them into the opposite.
● Sublimation (finding an acceptable substitute): transforming an impulse into a more socially acceptable form of behaviour.
● Regression (developmental retreat): responding to internal feelings triggered by an external threat by reverting to ‘child- like’ behaviour from an earlier stage of development.

Q:

The therapeutic techniques used in psychoanalysis

A:

- ‘where id was, let ego be’

- rather than being driven by unconscious forces and impulses, people after therapy will be more rational, more aware of their inner emotional life and more able to control these feelings in an appropriate manner.

- achievement of insight into the true nature of one’s problems

‘catharsis’: release of the emotional tension


There are a number of therapeutic techniques or strategies used in psychoanalytic or psychodynamic therapy:

1. Systematic use of the relationship between the counsellor and client (‘blank screen’, authority figures, transference, re-enactment, becoming aware of projections)

2. Identifying and analysing resistances and defences (source of resistance)

3. Free association or ‘saying whatever comes to mind’ (less influenced by defence mechanisms, person’s ‘truth’)

4. Working on dreams and fantasies (dreams symbolically represent people, impulses or situations in the dreamer’s waking life, imagination)

5. Interpretation (understand the origins of problems)

6. Other miscellaneous techniques (toys and play, expressive techniques, projective techniques, diaries or autobiographies)

Q:

The post-Freudian evolution of the psychodynamic approach

A:

Disagreement between Freud and Jung about motivation:

Jung argued that human beings have a drive towards ‘individuation’, or the integration and fulfilment of self, as well as more biologically based drives associated with sexuality. Jung also viewed the unconscious as encompassing spiritual and transcendental areas of meaning.


Disagreement with...

- Ferenczi and Rank about therapeutical techniques

- Reich pursued the bodily, organismic roots of defences

- Adler studied significance of social factors in emotional life


Underlying quetions were:

● What happens in the early years of life to produce later problems?
● How do unconscious processes and mechanisms operate?
● What should the therapist do to make psychoanalytic therapy most effective for patients or clients (the question of technique)?


Evolution of the psychodynamic approach since Freud's death:

- object relation approach

- work of the British 'Independents'

- refinements of technique and therapy on a time-limited basis

Q:

Goals of the psychodynamic approach?

A:

- explore the types of feelings and relationship dilemmas that have caused difficulties for the client in his or her everyday life

- help clients to achieve insight and understanding around the reasons for their problems, and translate this insight into a mature capacity to cope with current and future difficulties

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