Biology an der University Of Toronto | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für Biology an der University of Toronto

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Fetal circulation
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Foremen ovale: fetal shunt from right atrium -> left atrium to bypass fetal lungs
Ductus arteriosus: fetal shunt from pulmonary artery -> aorta to bypass fetal lungs
Ductus venosus: fetal shunt from umbilical vein -> IVC to bypass fetal liver

Umbilical vein (1): oxygenated, detoxified blood from placenta -> fetus
Umbilical arteries (2): deoxygenated, waste-filled blood from fetus -> placenta
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Prion
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Infectious protein that promotes transition of alpha helixes -> beta sheets (increased protein aggregation)
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Gram-positive vs Gram-negative bacteria
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Gram-Positive: PURPLE = thick peptidoglycan layer, lipoteichoic acid PAMP – more affected by penicillin that disrupts peptidoglycan 

Gram-Negative: RED = thin peptidoglycan surrounded by inner and outer PL membranes, lipopolysaccharide PAMP

Gram Stain: (1) stain purple, (2) wash, (3) stain red – the thick peptidoglycan traps purple in Gram-Positive
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Archenteron
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Blastula -> invagination -> gastrula with archenteron lined with endodermal cells (will form adult digestive tract) 

Blastophore: opening of archenteron that will form mouth (protostomes) or anus (deuterostomes) of species depending on embryonic program 
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Ectoderm
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Outermost primary germ layer; gives rise to nervous system, lens of eye, inner ear, skin, hair, nails
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Endoderm
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Innermost primary germ layer (lines the archenteron); gives rise to lining of respiratory and digestive tracts
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Mesoderm
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Middle primary germ layer; gives rise to cardiovascular, excretory, musculoskeletal, bladder, liver, gonads 
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Coagulation cascade
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1. Clotting factors -> -> prothrombinase / thromboplastin
2. Thromboplastin: prothrombin -> thrombin
3. Thrombin: fibrinogen -> fibrin (main protein in cross-linked fibres of clot)

4. tPA: plasminogen -> plasmin (dissolves the clot)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Latent period
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Time between AP and muscle contraction because takes time for AP -> Ca2+ signalling -> myofilament crossbridge -> contraction
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Negative sense virus
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Genome of RNA virus where RNA sequence is complementary to actual transcript for viral proteins (virus contains RNA replicate -> cDNA -> template for protein synthesis) 

*Negative sense takes LONGER 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Positive sense virus
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Genome of RNA virus where viral RNA is direct template for viral proteins (viral RNA -> proteins by host ribosomes)

*Positive sense is FASTER
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Neuroglia
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Cells that support neurons – provide nutrients, oxygen, insulate, secure in place, remove dead neurons, protect from pathogens 
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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Biology Kurs an der University of Toronto - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:
Fetal circulation
A:
Foremen ovale: fetal shunt from right atrium -> left atrium to bypass fetal lungs
Ductus arteriosus: fetal shunt from pulmonary artery -> aorta to bypass fetal lungs
Ductus venosus: fetal shunt from umbilical vein -> IVC to bypass fetal liver

Umbilical vein (1): oxygenated, detoxified blood from placenta -> fetus
Umbilical arteries (2): deoxygenated, waste-filled blood from fetus -> placenta
Q:
Prion
A:
Infectious protein that promotes transition of alpha helixes -> beta sheets (increased protein aggregation)
Q:
Gram-positive vs Gram-negative bacteria
A:
Gram-Positive: PURPLE = thick peptidoglycan layer, lipoteichoic acid PAMP – more affected by penicillin that disrupts peptidoglycan 

Gram-Negative: RED = thin peptidoglycan surrounded by inner and outer PL membranes, lipopolysaccharide PAMP

Gram Stain: (1) stain purple, (2) wash, (3) stain red – the thick peptidoglycan traps purple in Gram-Positive
Q:
Archenteron
A:
Blastula -> invagination -> gastrula with archenteron lined with endodermal cells (will form adult digestive tract) 

Blastophore: opening of archenteron that will form mouth (protostomes) or anus (deuterostomes) of species depending on embryonic program 
Q:
Ectoderm
A:
Outermost primary germ layer; gives rise to nervous system, lens of eye, inner ear, skin, hair, nails
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Endoderm
A:
Innermost primary germ layer (lines the archenteron); gives rise to lining of respiratory and digestive tracts
Q:
Mesoderm
A:
Middle primary germ layer; gives rise to cardiovascular, excretory, musculoskeletal, bladder, liver, gonads 
Q:
Coagulation cascade
A:
1. Clotting factors -> -> prothrombinase / thromboplastin
2. Thromboplastin: prothrombin -> thrombin
3. Thrombin: fibrinogen -> fibrin (main protein in cross-linked fibres of clot)

4. tPA: plasminogen -> plasmin (dissolves the clot)
Q:
Latent period
A:
Time between AP and muscle contraction because takes time for AP -> Ca2+ signalling -> myofilament crossbridge -> contraction
Q:
Negative sense virus
A:
Genome of RNA virus where RNA sequence is complementary to actual transcript for viral proteins (virus contains RNA replicate -> cDNA -> template for protein synthesis) 

*Negative sense takes LONGER 
Q:
Positive sense virus
A:
Genome of RNA virus where viral RNA is direct template for viral proteins (viral RNA -> proteins by host ribosomes)

*Positive sense is FASTER
Q:
Neuroglia
A:
Cells that support neurons – provide nutrients, oxygen, insulate, secure in place, remove dead neurons, protect from pathogens 
Biology

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