Introduction: The Nature Of Ethics And Moral Reasoning an der University Of The Philippines Manila | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

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Where is the threshold of philosophy, based on the first concept of Philosophy?

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commonsensical notions

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What is personal philosophy? What does this encompass? How does this play a role in our lives?

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Personal philosophy is the internalized presuppositions of humans.


This includes (1) fundamental values, (2) some rules of life, some basic assumptions about (3) things, (4) persons, and (5) institutions, that influences our decisions, beliefs, actions or what not.


The general belief underlies in the fact that each man has his own personal philosophy that significantly affects his mode of relating or dealing with his environment.

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Where are ethical notions based? How does it serve as the reference point of our ethical judgment?

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It is based on exposure from physical, social and intellectual environment. 


The values we have gained from these have become part of our intellectual repertoire at the back of our minds (consciousness) serving as the reference point of our ethical judgment.

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Does a person's ethical notions reflect a person's consciousness?

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NOT NECESSARILY. This philosophy does not, as a rule, surface to the person’s consciousness, but just the same, it provides shape and directions to his beliefs, actions and expectations..

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Where are metaphysical and epistemological notions rooted?

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metaphysical:

  • Some of our conceptual difficulties are rooted in some woolly metaphysical notions (some may think that when we talk about something, there ought to be
    something in reality
    , in the external world, we are talking about).
  • Our judgement borders on what are tangible to the senses and what are not.
  • e.g. Square circles do not exist​​​​


epistemological:

  • This from utilizes the built episteme of a person to judge an object, situation, event, or idea—whether it is familiar or alien and quotidian or newly introduced.
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What are Bonifacio's sentiments on the self-reflective activities that philosophers actively do?

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To objectify and analyze the foundation of our (individual) values, including the roots of our metaphysical and epistemological beliefs, is to engage in philosophy.


NOTE: This limits philosophy to this type of  activity

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How is the ordinary man different from the philospher?

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The ordinary man engages in reflective activities in a piecemeal fashion, while the philosopher actively do it in a more systematic and comprehensive manner.

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What does the third concept of Philosophy encompass?

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This activity encompasses looking for more viable foundations for ethics, metaphysics and epistemology—a more comprehensive view of the universe.


Furthermore, it is about going beyond what is in the confines of a particular discipline amounting to some form of a more comprehensive body of knowledge.


Our activity of reflection finds broader meaning not merely in showing the error of our ways, the implausibility of our ordinary beliefs, but in putting things together in the proper perspective. In other words, it permeates the deconstruction of given set of universal laws and their reconstruction to form a whole new body of knowledge.

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Why study Ethics?(Hint: there are 4) 

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  • to get a clear view of a situation, to judge one's choices whether they are moral problems—about what is good and bad, or better and worse, or even right and wrong
  • because we live in an ethically pluralist society: no single code of ethics (Hence, some ethical values will always be in conflict relative to each other)
  • ethics continually changes, which is why we need to get a clearer understanding of the nature of man
  • to allow us to choose between alternative course of actions or opposing values
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What is Ethics? (Hint: there are 5 answers) 

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  • It is the study of the various sets of values that people do have and their justification
  • It is a critical enterprise
  • It comprises of the core attitudes, beliefs, & feelings that give coherence and vitality to people
  • It is the systematic questioning of critical examination of the underlying principles of morality.
  • It is a discipline or study in which we ask (and attempt to answer) foundational questions about key areas or matters of human life and experience
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Since philosophy asks foundational questions and attempts to give reasons and make arguments to justify one's moral conclusions, does this mean that rationality should always take over?


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NO, Emotions can aide in good decision-making.

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What are the three concepts of philosophy, according to Armando Bonifacio?

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  1. Philosophy is the whole range of our intellectual presuppositions, on which is rooted our epistemological, metaphysical, and ethical judgments, beliefs, and actions.
  2. Philosophy is concerned with the reflective activities directed at these presuppositions—from the reflections of the self.
  3. It refers to the reconstructed belief or value system that should show a universal and comprehensive character
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Q:

Where is the threshold of philosophy, based on the first concept of Philosophy?

A:

commonsensical notions

Q:

What is personal philosophy? What does this encompass? How does this play a role in our lives?

A:

Personal philosophy is the internalized presuppositions of humans.


This includes (1) fundamental values, (2) some rules of life, some basic assumptions about (3) things, (4) persons, and (5) institutions, that influences our decisions, beliefs, actions or what not.


The general belief underlies in the fact that each man has his own personal philosophy that significantly affects his mode of relating or dealing with his environment.

Q:

Where are ethical notions based? How does it serve as the reference point of our ethical judgment?

A:

It is based on exposure from physical, social and intellectual environment. 


The values we have gained from these have become part of our intellectual repertoire at the back of our minds (consciousness) serving as the reference point of our ethical judgment.

Q:

Does a person's ethical notions reflect a person's consciousness?

A:

NOT NECESSARILY. This philosophy does not, as a rule, surface to the person’s consciousness, but just the same, it provides shape and directions to his beliefs, actions and expectations..

Q:

Where are metaphysical and epistemological notions rooted?

A:

metaphysical:

  • Some of our conceptual difficulties are rooted in some woolly metaphysical notions (some may think that when we talk about something, there ought to be
    something in reality
    , in the external world, we are talking about).
  • Our judgement borders on what are tangible to the senses and what are not.
  • e.g. Square circles do not exist​​​​


epistemological:

  • This from utilizes the built episteme of a person to judge an object, situation, event, or idea—whether it is familiar or alien and quotidian or newly introduced.
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

What are Bonifacio's sentiments on the self-reflective activities that philosophers actively do?

A:

To objectify and analyze the foundation of our (individual) values, including the roots of our metaphysical and epistemological beliefs, is to engage in philosophy.


NOTE: This limits philosophy to this type of  activity

Q:

How is the ordinary man different from the philospher?

A:

The ordinary man engages in reflective activities in a piecemeal fashion, while the philosopher actively do it in a more systematic and comprehensive manner.

Q:

What does the third concept of Philosophy encompass?

A:

This activity encompasses looking for more viable foundations for ethics, metaphysics and epistemology—a more comprehensive view of the universe.


Furthermore, it is about going beyond what is in the confines of a particular discipline amounting to some form of a more comprehensive body of knowledge.


Our activity of reflection finds broader meaning not merely in showing the error of our ways, the implausibility of our ordinary beliefs, but in putting things together in the proper perspective. In other words, it permeates the deconstruction of given set of universal laws and their reconstruction to form a whole new body of knowledge.

Q:

Why study Ethics?(Hint: there are 4) 

A:
  • to get a clear view of a situation, to judge one's choices whether they are moral problems—about what is good and bad, or better and worse, or even right and wrong
  • because we live in an ethically pluralist society: no single code of ethics (Hence, some ethical values will always be in conflict relative to each other)
  • ethics continually changes, which is why we need to get a clearer understanding of the nature of man
  • to allow us to choose between alternative course of actions or opposing values
Q:

What is Ethics? (Hint: there are 5 answers) 

A:
  • It is the study of the various sets of values that people do have and their justification
  • It is a critical enterprise
  • It comprises of the core attitudes, beliefs, & feelings that give coherence and vitality to people
  • It is the systematic questioning of critical examination of the underlying principles of morality.
  • It is a discipline or study in which we ask (and attempt to answer) foundational questions about key areas or matters of human life and experience
Q:

Since philosophy asks foundational questions and attempts to give reasons and make arguments to justify one's moral conclusions, does this mean that rationality should always take over?


A:

NO, Emotions can aide in good decision-making.

Q:

What are the three concepts of philosophy, according to Armando Bonifacio?

A:
  1. Philosophy is the whole range of our intellectual presuppositions, on which is rooted our epistemological, metaphysical, and ethical judgments, beliefs, and actions.
  2. Philosophy is concerned with the reflective activities directed at these presuppositions—from the reflections of the self.
  3. It refers to the reconstructed belief or value system that should show a universal and comprehensive character
Introduction: The Nature of Ethics and Moral Reasoning

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