Orthopedics an der University Of Stellenbosch | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für Orthopedics an der University of Stellenbosch

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Osteodystrophy
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is a medical term used to describe abnormal changes in the growth and formation of bone. It is most commonly the result of chronic kidney disease. In children, it  can cause bone malformation and short stature, while adults may experience brittle bones and fractures
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Club foot 
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 is a birth defect ( congenital disorder ) where one or both feet are rotated inward and downward
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Antalgic gait
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It refers to an abnormal pattern of walking secondary to pain that ultimately causes a limp, whereby the stance phase is shortened relative to the swing phase. 
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A limb length discrepancy (LLD)
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is when one arm or leg is longer than the other arm or leg. A difference in leg lengths is more likely to be noticed and to affect activities of daily living.
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Characteristics of the clubfoot deformity,
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  • Deformity: foot points downwards and inwards 
    • Hindfoot equinus (Abnormal plantar flexion of ankle) and varus(elevation of the medial ray)
    • Midfoot cavus (arch of midfoot)
    • Forefoot adductus
    • Limited dorsiflexion (Flexion beyond 90° is not possible.)
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What is the Ponseti-method
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A Manipulative treatment: (manual correction with serial casting )
Initially, the limb is fixed in the correct position with a cast. This is repeated at regular intervals, allowing for the progressive correction of the deformity.
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Night pain
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Pain that awakens the patient at night or interferes with sleep; may be due to infection, inflammation, neurovascular compromise, or severe structural damage.
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Growing pains:
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Mysterious pains in growing children, usually in the legs, likely occurring as a result of overuse. Growing pains are typically somewhat diffuse, and they are not associated with physical changes of the area, such as swelling or redness
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A trendelenburg gait
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 is an abnormal gait resulting from a defective hip abductor mechanism. The primary musculature involved is the gluteal musculature, including the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus muscles. The weakness of these muscles causes drooping of the pelvis to the contralateral side while walking.
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Joint contracture
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is defined as an inability to move a joint through its full range of motion (ROM).
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What Is a Joint Contracture?.
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It develops when a non-stretchy, fiber-like tissue replaces the normally stretchy, elastic connective tissue in a joint, such as the hip or knee. Contractures can happen in muscles and tendons as well. A contracture makes it hard to move and often causes pain
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What are the clinical features of inferior dislocation of the shoulder?
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  • Severe shoulder pain
  • Inability to move the shoulder
  • Empty glenoid fossa: A palpable dent may be present at the point where the head of the humerus is supposed to lie.
  • inferior dislocation
  • The arm is held above the head, with the patient unable to actively adduct the arm.
  • Neurologic dysfunction, especially with involvement of the axillary nerve, is common.
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Q:
Osteodystrophy
A:
is a medical term used to describe abnormal changes in the growth and formation of bone. It is most commonly the result of chronic kidney disease. In children, it  can cause bone malformation and short stature, while adults may experience brittle bones and fractures
Q:
Club foot 
A:
 is a birth defect ( congenital disorder ) where one or both feet are rotated inward and downward
Q:
Antalgic gait
A:
It refers to an abnormal pattern of walking secondary to pain that ultimately causes a limp, whereby the stance phase is shortened relative to the swing phase. 
Q:
A limb length discrepancy (LLD)
A:
is when one arm or leg is longer than the other arm or leg. A difference in leg lengths is more likely to be noticed and to affect activities of daily living.
Q:
Characteristics of the clubfoot deformity,
A:
  • Deformity: foot points downwards and inwards 
    • Hindfoot equinus (Abnormal plantar flexion of ankle) and varus(elevation of the medial ray)
    • Midfoot cavus (arch of midfoot)
    • Forefoot adductus
    • Limited dorsiflexion (Flexion beyond 90° is not possible.)
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Q:
What is the Ponseti-method
A:
A Manipulative treatment: (manual correction with serial casting )
Initially, the limb is fixed in the correct position with a cast. This is repeated at regular intervals, allowing for the progressive correction of the deformity.
Q:
Night pain
A:
Pain that awakens the patient at night or interferes with sleep; may be due to infection, inflammation, neurovascular compromise, or severe structural damage.
Q:
Growing pains:
A:
Mysterious pains in growing children, usually in the legs, likely occurring as a result of overuse. Growing pains are typically somewhat diffuse, and they are not associated with physical changes of the area, such as swelling or redness
Q:
A trendelenburg gait
A:
 is an abnormal gait resulting from a defective hip abductor mechanism. The primary musculature involved is the gluteal musculature, including the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus muscles. The weakness of these muscles causes drooping of the pelvis to the contralateral side while walking.
Q:
Joint contracture
A:
is defined as an inability to move a joint through its full range of motion (ROM).
Q:
What Is a Joint Contracture?.
A:
It develops when a non-stretchy, fiber-like tissue replaces the normally stretchy, elastic connective tissue in a joint, such as the hip or knee. Contractures can happen in muscles and tendons as well. A contracture makes it hard to move and often causes pain
Q:
What are the clinical features of inferior dislocation of the shoulder?
A:
  • Severe shoulder pain
  • Inability to move the shoulder
  • Empty glenoid fossa: A palpable dent may be present at the point where the head of the humerus is supposed to lie.
  • inferior dislocation
  • The arm is held above the head, with the patient unable to actively adduct the arm.
  • Neurologic dysfunction, especially with involvement of the axillary nerve, is common.
Orthopedics

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