Pharmacology an der University Of Otago | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für Pharmacology an der University of Otago

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What type of survival functions
controlled by the hypothalamus?

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Appetite
Reproduction
Aggression
Pituitary
Water balance
Growth
Metabolism
Circadian rhythms
Stress responses

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Where is the stress control centre located?

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Paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus

Abbreviated to PVN or PVH

Major divisions of the PVN:
magnocellular, parvicellular,
preautonomic

Many different cell types:

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) neurons
Somatostatin neurons
Oxytocin neurons
Vasopressin neurons
Preautonomic

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Summary- HPA axis

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• Hypothalamic CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from corticotrophs in the pituitary.
•ACTH acts on receptors in the adrenal to stimulate corticosteroid synthesis and release
• Basal corticosteroid secretion is important for normal physiology (in the absence of stress).
• Surge of corticosteroid secretion drives physiological changes to assist in survival following stress

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What do you think stress is?

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The neural and physiological responses
of an organism to a real or perceived threat.

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Name 3 physiological responses mediated by adrenaline

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Increased HR and cardiac output
Increased blood pressure
Fast mobilization of fuel stores

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Name 4 physiological responses mediated by cortisol

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Longer lasting mobilisation of fuel stores
Suppression of immune responses
Enhanced cardiac contractility
Modulation of brain function

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Corticotropin-releasing hormone
(CRH) neurons control:

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The neuroendocrine
stress response

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Vasopressin neurons control:

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The sympathetic stress response

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Hypothalamic CRH neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) receive afferent input from which regions on the brain?

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1. Arcuate Nucleus (Hypothalamus)

2. Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Nucleus (DMH)

3. Prefrontal Cortex

4. Amygdala

5. Nucleus Tractus Solitarius (NTS)

6. Ventrolateral Medulla (VLM)

7. Hippocampus


The afferent input it receives provides information on the amount of stress the body is in. The NTS provides information on blood-glucose levels, the amygdala provides emotional information, the ventrolateral medulla provides information on breathing and blood pressure, the arcuate nucleus provides information on energy balance and hunger - to name a few.

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Where do the axons of CRH neurons terminate?

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The Median Eminence

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Why do CRH neurons terminate in the Median Eminence?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Because the Median Eminence has a leaky blood-brain-barrier. Regular BBB has tight junctions between endothelial cells, whereas, the median eminence has fenestrated capillaries.

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What receptor type does corticotropin release hormone (CRH) bind to?

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CRHR1 receptors

Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor 1 on Corticotroph cells in the anterior pituitary (AP)

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Q:

What type of survival functions
controlled by the hypothalamus?

A:

Appetite
Reproduction
Aggression
Pituitary
Water balance
Growth
Metabolism
Circadian rhythms
Stress responses

Q:

Where is the stress control centre located?

A:

Paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus

Abbreviated to PVN or PVH

Major divisions of the PVN:
magnocellular, parvicellular,
preautonomic

Many different cell types:

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) neurons
Somatostatin neurons
Oxytocin neurons
Vasopressin neurons
Preautonomic

Q:

Summary- HPA axis

A:

• Hypothalamic CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from corticotrophs in the pituitary.
•ACTH acts on receptors in the adrenal to stimulate corticosteroid synthesis and release
• Basal corticosteroid secretion is important for normal physiology (in the absence of stress).
• Surge of corticosteroid secretion drives physiological changes to assist in survival following stress

Q:

What do you think stress is?

A:

The neural and physiological responses
of an organism to a real or perceived threat.

Q:

Name 3 physiological responses mediated by adrenaline

A:

Increased HR and cardiac output
Increased blood pressure
Fast mobilization of fuel stores

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Name 4 physiological responses mediated by cortisol

A:

Longer lasting mobilisation of fuel stores
Suppression of immune responses
Enhanced cardiac contractility
Modulation of brain function

Q:

Corticotropin-releasing hormone
(CRH) neurons control:

A:

The neuroendocrine
stress response

Q:

Vasopressin neurons control:

A:

The sympathetic stress response

Q:

Hypothalamic CRH neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) receive afferent input from which regions on the brain?

A:

1. Arcuate Nucleus (Hypothalamus)

2. Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Nucleus (DMH)

3. Prefrontal Cortex

4. Amygdala

5. Nucleus Tractus Solitarius (NTS)

6. Ventrolateral Medulla (VLM)

7. Hippocampus


The afferent input it receives provides information on the amount of stress the body is in. The NTS provides information on blood-glucose levels, the amygdala provides emotional information, the ventrolateral medulla provides information on breathing and blood pressure, the arcuate nucleus provides information on energy balance and hunger - to name a few.

Q:

Where do the axons of CRH neurons terminate?

A:

The Median Eminence

Q:

Why do CRH neurons terminate in the Median Eminence?

A:

Because the Median Eminence has a leaky blood-brain-barrier. Regular BBB has tight junctions between endothelial cells, whereas, the median eminence has fenestrated capillaries.

Q:

What receptor type does corticotropin release hormone (CRH) bind to?

A:

CRHR1 receptors

Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor 1 on Corticotroph cells in the anterior pituitary (AP)

Pharmacology

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