Pharmacy an der University Of Latvia | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für Pharmacy an der University of Latvia

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full agonist 

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  • a drug with endogenous ligand like intrinsic activity 
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polypharmacy 

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  • multiple perscribed medication for different diseases 
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Method to prepare emulsion 

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  • dry gum - better result
  • wet gum - suitable for viscous oil (oleo-resin)
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Selective action of a drug substance 

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  • Selectivity will be used to describe the ability of a drug to affect a particular population, i.e., gene, protein, signaling pathway, or cell, in preference to others. For example a selective drug would have the ability to discriminate between, and so affect only one cell population, and thereby produce an event
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Definition of External liquid preparation


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External liquid preparation is a pharmaceutical
preparation containing medicament which is neither solid nor gaseous, intended to be use on the surface of the body.

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mechanisms of biomembrane 

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  • passive diffusion, filtration,active transpor, pinocytosis 



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biological barrier (first barrier) 

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  • A major challenge in the drug delivery field is to enhance transport of therapeutics across biological barriers such as the blood brain barrier (BBB), the small intestine, nasal, skin and the mouth mucosa. These barriers are designed by nature to keep foreign material out and only allow small molecules with specific characteristics to cross, e.g. by receptor regulated transcytosis. The pharmaceutical industry moves toward the utilization of larger biologicals as the next generation of drugs; however, this focus is resulting in a large drug delivery challenge for the industry. The result is that tissue specific transporters have to be used to carry larger molecules across biological barriers or the barriers have to be perturbed by use of molecules that weakens the barrier, e.g. by targeting tight junctions.
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Pharmacotherapy 

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  •  therapy using pharmaceutical drugs, as distinguished from therapy using surgery (surgical therapy), radiation (radiation therapy), movement (physical therapy), or other modes.
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direct and inirect action of a drug substance 

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  • Direct action occurs in the place of drug contact with tissues, e.g., cardiotonic action of cardiac glycosides.
  •  Indirect action appears in result function changes, e.g., increased diuresis during administration of cardiac glycosides.
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Bioequivalence

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  •  a term in pharmacokinetics used to assess the expected in vivo biological equivalence of two proprietary preparations of a drug. If two products are said to be bioequivalent it means that they would be expected to be, for all intents and purposes, the same
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depo

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  • Several medications are available on the market with names that begin with “Depo-,” meaning they are administered via a depot injection that deposits the drug into localized tissue from which it is gradually absorbed by surrounding tissue. These injections, typically subcutaneous, intramuscular, or intra-articular, allow the active compound to be released consistently over a longer period of time. Many of these Depo- medications have been on the market for 30 to 50 years, some even longer.
  • The Depo- medications most often involved in outpatient errors (wrong route, wrong drug, wrong strength/volume) are listed in the table.
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Cytochromes P450 (CYPs)

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  • are a superfamily of enzymes containing heme as a cofactor that function as monooxygenases. In mammals, these proteins oxidize steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics, and are important for the clearance of various compounds, as well as for hormone synthesis and breakdown
  • Cytochrome P450 enzymes are essential for the metabolism of many medications. Although this class has more than 50 enzymes, six of them metabolize 90 percent of drugs, with the two most significant enzymes being CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Genetic variability (polymorphism) in these enzymes may influence a patient's response to commonly prescribed drug classes, including beta blockers and antidepressants. Cytochrome P450 enzymes can be inhibited or induced by drugs, resulting in clinically significant drug-drug interactions that can cause unanticipated adverse reactions or therapeutic failures. Interactions with warfarin, antidepressants, antiepileptic drugs, and statins often involve the cytochrome P450 enzymes. Knowledge of the most important drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes, as well as the most potent inhibiting and inducing drugs, can help minimize the possibility of adverse drug reactions and interactions. Although genotype tests can determine if a patient has a specific enzyme polymorphism, it has not been determined if routine use of these tests will improve outcomes.
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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Pharmacy Kurs an der University of Latvia - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

full agonist 

A:
  • a drug with endogenous ligand like intrinsic activity 
Q:

polypharmacy 

A:
  • multiple perscribed medication for different diseases 
Q:

Method to prepare emulsion 

A:
  • dry gum - better result
  • wet gum - suitable for viscous oil (oleo-resin)
Q:

Selective action of a drug substance 

A:
  • Selectivity will be used to describe the ability of a drug to affect a particular population, i.e., gene, protein, signaling pathway, or cell, in preference to others. For example a selective drug would have the ability to discriminate between, and so affect only one cell population, and thereby produce an event
Q:

Definition of External liquid preparation


A:

External liquid preparation is a pharmaceutical
preparation containing medicament which is neither solid nor gaseous, intended to be use on the surface of the body.

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

mechanisms of biomembrane 

A:
  • passive diffusion, filtration,active transpor, pinocytosis 



Q:

biological barrier (first barrier) 

A:
  • A major challenge in the drug delivery field is to enhance transport of therapeutics across biological barriers such as the blood brain barrier (BBB), the small intestine, nasal, skin and the mouth mucosa. These barriers are designed by nature to keep foreign material out and only allow small molecules with specific characteristics to cross, e.g. by receptor regulated transcytosis. The pharmaceutical industry moves toward the utilization of larger biologicals as the next generation of drugs; however, this focus is resulting in a large drug delivery challenge for the industry. The result is that tissue specific transporters have to be used to carry larger molecules across biological barriers or the barriers have to be perturbed by use of molecules that weakens the barrier, e.g. by targeting tight junctions.
Q:

Pharmacotherapy 

A:
  •  therapy using pharmaceutical drugs, as distinguished from therapy using surgery (surgical therapy), radiation (radiation therapy), movement (physical therapy), or other modes.
Q:

direct and inirect action of a drug substance 

A:
  • Direct action occurs in the place of drug contact with tissues, e.g., cardiotonic action of cardiac glycosides.
  •  Indirect action appears in result function changes, e.g., increased diuresis during administration of cardiac glycosides.
Q:

Bioequivalence

A:
  •  a term in pharmacokinetics used to assess the expected in vivo biological equivalence of two proprietary preparations of a drug. If two products are said to be bioequivalent it means that they would be expected to be, for all intents and purposes, the same
Q:

depo

A:
  • Several medications are available on the market with names that begin with “Depo-,” meaning they are administered via a depot injection that deposits the drug into localized tissue from which it is gradually absorbed by surrounding tissue. These injections, typically subcutaneous, intramuscular, or intra-articular, allow the active compound to be released consistently over a longer period of time. Many of these Depo- medications have been on the market for 30 to 50 years, some even longer.
  • The Depo- medications most often involved in outpatient errors (wrong route, wrong drug, wrong strength/volume) are listed in the table.
Q:

Cytochromes P450 (CYPs)

A:
  • are a superfamily of enzymes containing heme as a cofactor that function as monooxygenases. In mammals, these proteins oxidize steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics, and are important for the clearance of various compounds, as well as for hormone synthesis and breakdown
  • Cytochrome P450 enzymes are essential for the metabolism of many medications. Although this class has more than 50 enzymes, six of them metabolize 90 percent of drugs, with the two most significant enzymes being CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Genetic variability (polymorphism) in these enzymes may influence a patient's response to commonly prescribed drug classes, including beta blockers and antidepressants. Cytochrome P450 enzymes can be inhibited or induced by drugs, resulting in clinically significant drug-drug interactions that can cause unanticipated adverse reactions or therapeutic failures. Interactions with warfarin, antidepressants, antiepileptic drugs, and statins often involve the cytochrome P450 enzymes. Knowledge of the most important drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes, as well as the most potent inhibiting and inducing drugs, can help minimize the possibility of adverse drug reactions and interactions. Although genotype tests can determine if a patient has a specific enzyme polymorphism, it has not been determined if routine use of these tests will improve outcomes.
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