EXAM: Clinical Neuropsychology an der University Of Groningen | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für EXAM: Clinical Neuropsychology an der University of Groningen

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Rene Descartes

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-Mind-body dualism: The soul is an independently functioning intangible unit

- Interactionist theory

-Assumption: all mental functions are located in the pineal gland
-Pineal gland as the primary source of the “animal spirits” that animate our body
-> Pineal gland secrets these spirits into ventricles and down into the spinal cord, manipulating the body's muscles and movements in a
hydraulic system -> Description of reflex

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Franz Joseph Gall

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-Introduced the notion that there are many mental organs in our brains

-He investigated patients post-mortem, and related brain damage to the behavior they exhibited.

- Assumed that all psychological functions are innate

- Phrenology: The study of the skull as indicative of mental faculties and traits
of character

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Phrenology

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The study of the skull as indicative of mental faculties and traits of character

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Trapanation

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- Oldest surgical procedure
- Involved boring holes through a person’s skull

- Reasons: ritual or experimental reasons, to treat medical conditions

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CT scan

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-produces anatomical images of the brain
-Show too little of the subtle differences in brain tissue (between grey and white matter)
-A CT scan works through the transmission of X-rays

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Pet techniques

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-nuclear medical imaging technique
-stain specific tissues in the brain with radioactive particles (stick to receptors)
-non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique
-highly detailed images
-shows metabolic changes

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MRI scan

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-Uses magnetic field and radio wave technique

-Detailed images of the brain stem
-Clearly distinguishes between grey and white matter
-Measures changes in the blood flow
-Limited temporal resolution

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MEG

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-Uses magnetic fields (produced during neural activity)
-Detects the location of active areas
-Limited spatial resolution
-Measures magnetic field generated by action potentials

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EEG

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-Detects abnormalities in the brain waves (electrical activity)
-Cannot measure single neurons (sensitivity is too low)
-Limited spatial resolution

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Functional Imaging

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Functional imaging shows which areas are active (structural imaging not)

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Double dissociation (Geschwind)

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-When two related mental processes are shown to function independently of each other
->E.g., language production and comprehension (Broca’s and Wernicke’s area)

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Cell Theory

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-Humans have a higher-order soul that is located in three cells (ventricles) of the brain

-> Postulation that mental and spiritual processes/ functions were localized in the brain ventricles
-> Assumption that soul was split up into separate functions that each had their own place in a ventricle

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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen EXAM: Clinical Neuropsychology Kurs an der University of Groningen - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

Rene Descartes

A:

-Mind-body dualism: The soul is an independently functioning intangible unit

- Interactionist theory

-Assumption: all mental functions are located in the pineal gland
-Pineal gland as the primary source of the “animal spirits” that animate our body
-> Pineal gland secrets these spirits into ventricles and down into the spinal cord, manipulating the body's muscles and movements in a
hydraulic system -> Description of reflex

Q:

Franz Joseph Gall

A:

-Introduced the notion that there are many mental organs in our brains

-He investigated patients post-mortem, and related brain damage to the behavior they exhibited.

- Assumed that all psychological functions are innate

- Phrenology: The study of the skull as indicative of mental faculties and traits
of character

Q:

Phrenology

A:

The study of the skull as indicative of mental faculties and traits of character

Q:

Trapanation

A:

- Oldest surgical procedure
- Involved boring holes through a person’s skull

- Reasons: ritual or experimental reasons, to treat medical conditions

Q:

CT scan

A:

-produces anatomical images of the brain
-Show too little of the subtle differences in brain tissue (between grey and white matter)
-A CT scan works through the transmission of X-rays

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Pet techniques

A:

-nuclear medical imaging technique
-stain specific tissues in the brain with radioactive particles (stick to receptors)
-non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique
-highly detailed images
-shows metabolic changes

Q:

MRI scan

A:

-Uses magnetic field and radio wave technique

-Detailed images of the brain stem
-Clearly distinguishes between grey and white matter
-Measures changes in the blood flow
-Limited temporal resolution

Q:

MEG

A:

-Uses magnetic fields (produced during neural activity)
-Detects the location of active areas
-Limited spatial resolution
-Measures magnetic field generated by action potentials

Q:

EEG

A:

-Detects abnormalities in the brain waves (electrical activity)
-Cannot measure single neurons (sensitivity is too low)
-Limited spatial resolution

Q:

Functional Imaging

A:

Functional imaging shows which areas are active (structural imaging not)

Q:

Double dissociation (Geschwind)

A:

-When two related mental processes are shown to function independently of each other
->E.g., language production and comprehension (Broca’s and Wernicke’s area)

Q:

Cell Theory

A:

-Humans have a higher-order soul that is located in three cells (ventricles) of the brain

-> Postulation that mental and spiritual processes/ functions were localized in the brain ventricles
-> Assumption that soul was split up into separate functions that each had their own place in a ventricle

EXAM: Clinical Neuropsychology

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