Biological Psychology- Health And Well-being an der University Of Groningen | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für Biological Psychology- Health and Well-being an der University of Groningen

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What is well-being?

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A positive state that includes striving for optimal health-enhancing behavior

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What is the Jo-Jo effect?

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-People often gain back more than their lost after the diet

-> Body responds to weight loss by slowing down metabolism and using less energy  (needs less food to maintain a given body weight)

-> Repeated alterations between caloric deprivation and overfeeting = are maladaptive (not providing adequate adjustments to the environment)

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Why do racial groups and ethical groups have worldwide large disparities in health?

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-Genetic variation in susceptibility to some disease 

-Different access to affordable health care

-Differences in cultural factors like dietary, exercise habits alcohol and opioid abuse

-Racial biases (e.g. in US . medical health care)


Different lifestyles= health differences

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Approximately what percent of Americans - 3, 30 or 60- satisfy the following health criteria: physically active, do not smoke, eat healthy diet, and maintain the recommended body fat level?

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Fewer than 3 percent of Americans satisfy all four criteria for being healthy

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How did the cause of mortality change over the last decades?

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-In the past many people died from infections and diseases

-Today: most causes are at least partially outcomes of lifestyle

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What is the metabolic syndrome?

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A constellation of risk factors that includes high blood pressure, insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, and high blood levels of unhealthy cholesterol 

-> result of poor nutrition 

-> many obese people store fat in abdomen-> higher risk for metabolic syndrome

=> amount of body fat really problematic

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What are the three factors for overeating?

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1) The sheer variety of high-calorie foods -> eating much more when various foods are available

2) The large proportions now served in many restaurants 

3) Individual responses to food cues: overweight people show more activity in reward regions of the brain when they see tasty-looking food

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What are the social and genetic influences on obesity?

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-Body weight may be socially contagious -> implicit agreements on what body weight is acceptable and normal between friends and family 


-Genetics determine wether a person can become obese, but environment determines wether that person will become obese


=> Genes predispose some people to obesity in environments that promote overeating  

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is the stigma of obesity in western/ industrialized countries?

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-being overweight is associated with lower socioeconomic status

-anti-fat stigma

-upper classes have clear preferences for very thin body types 

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What is the stigma of obesity in developing countries?

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-being obese is a sign of being upper class -> helps prevent from diseases + reduces likelihood of starvation

-obesity= status symbol -> indicates that one can afford to eat luxuriously 

-dieting is uncommon 

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What is the body mass index (BMI) ?

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A ratio of body weight that to height, that measure obesity

-> beyond or below the recommended weight range of 18.5- 25 : a greater risk for health problems 


-Issue: BMI does not take age, sex, bone structure, etc. into account 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are restrained eaters?

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= chronic dieters

-> prone to excessive eating in certain situations (when eating high-calorie food, tend to abandon diets, keep eating)

-reward system in their brain and stress leads restrained eaters to break their diets)

-Problem: rely on cognitive control of food intake instead of eating according to internal states of hunger (eat according to rules)

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  • 3 Lernmaterialien

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Biological Psychology- Health and Well-being Kurs an der University of Groningen - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

What is well-being?

A:

A positive state that includes striving for optimal health-enhancing behavior

Q:

What is the Jo-Jo effect?

A:

-People often gain back more than their lost after the diet

-> Body responds to weight loss by slowing down metabolism and using less energy  (needs less food to maintain a given body weight)

-> Repeated alterations between caloric deprivation and overfeeting = are maladaptive (not providing adequate adjustments to the environment)

Q:

Why do racial groups and ethical groups have worldwide large disparities in health?

A:

-Genetic variation in susceptibility to some disease 

-Different access to affordable health care

-Differences in cultural factors like dietary, exercise habits alcohol and opioid abuse

-Racial biases (e.g. in US . medical health care)


Different lifestyles= health differences

Q:

Approximately what percent of Americans - 3, 30 or 60- satisfy the following health criteria: physically active, do not smoke, eat healthy diet, and maintain the recommended body fat level?

A:

Fewer than 3 percent of Americans satisfy all four criteria for being healthy

Q:

How did the cause of mortality change over the last decades?

A:

-In the past many people died from infections and diseases

-Today: most causes are at least partially outcomes of lifestyle

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

What is the metabolic syndrome?

A:

A constellation of risk factors that includes high blood pressure, insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease, and high blood levels of unhealthy cholesterol 

-> result of poor nutrition 

-> many obese people store fat in abdomen-> higher risk for metabolic syndrome

=> amount of body fat really problematic

Q:

What are the three factors for overeating?

A:

1) The sheer variety of high-calorie foods -> eating much more when various foods are available

2) The large proportions now served in many restaurants 

3) Individual responses to food cues: overweight people show more activity in reward regions of the brain when they see tasty-looking food

Q:

What are the social and genetic influences on obesity?

A:

-Body weight may be socially contagious -> implicit agreements on what body weight is acceptable and normal between friends and family 


-Genetics determine wether a person can become obese, but environment determines wether that person will become obese


=> Genes predispose some people to obesity in environments that promote overeating  

Q:

What is the stigma of obesity in western/ industrialized countries?

A:

-being overweight is associated with lower socioeconomic status

-anti-fat stigma

-upper classes have clear preferences for very thin body types 

Q:

What is the stigma of obesity in developing countries?

A:

-being obese is a sign of being upper class -> helps prevent from diseases + reduces likelihood of starvation

-obesity= status symbol -> indicates that one can afford to eat luxuriously 

-dieting is uncommon 

Q:

What is the body mass index (BMI) ?

A:

A ratio of body weight that to height, that measure obesity

-> beyond or below the recommended weight range of 18.5- 25 : a greater risk for health problems 


-Issue: BMI does not take age, sex, bone structure, etc. into account 

Q:

What are restrained eaters?

A:

= chronic dieters

-> prone to excessive eating in certain situations (when eating high-calorie food, tend to abandon diets, keep eating)

-reward system in their brain and stress leads restrained eaters to break their diets)

-Problem: rely on cognitive control of food intake instead of eating according to internal states of hunger (eat according to rules)

Biological Psychology- Health and Well-being

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