1. Introduction, permission, and explanation of the procedure
2. Baby's surroundings; meds, cannula, nasal prongs etc
3. Inspection: State of the baby (active, alert, movement of limbs, well flexed or floppy, colour pink or blue, ill looking, birthmarks, petechiae, vernix, lanugo, milla, mongolian spots,hemangiomas, bullous)
4. Anthropometric measurements; length, weight, head circumference and plot on the appropriate chart.
Hair; colour, texture, distribution and pluckability.
Swellings; caput[Caput succedaneum between skin and epicranial aponeurosis ; crosses suture lines and containd edematous fluid] hematomas [Subgaleal haematoma: is between epicranial aponeurosis and periosteum; can cross suture lines. The child will be pale and touching the head causes intense pain. The infant must be transfused within 12 hours], [Cephal haematoma: is between periosteum and skull; does not cross suture lines. May contain blood that will undergo haemolysis to cause jaundice] and if they cross suture lines, abnormalities and dysmorphic features.
Palpate fontanelles, anterior fontanel is diamond-shaped and posterior triangularly shaped, are they sunken, flat or bulging. Palpate sutures to see if they are widened.
Face: Dysmorphic features (hyper/hypo telorism, lowset ears, flat nasal bridge, philtrum, cleft lip)
Eyes: Sclera for jaundice, Conjunctiva for palor, red reflex.
Mouth: teeth and cleft palate
Neck: Masses, SCM muscle mass, torticollis, webbed, clavicle-fracture
Chest: Inspect Respi Rate, palpate for breast, auscultate for heatbeat, and lung activity
Abdomen: Inspect umbilical cord,
Genitals: ambiguous, penis chordae, scrotal sac, testes unndescennded/retracted/ectopic urethra for epi/hypospadias, circumcised. Vagina for vulva and clitoris.
Check suckling reflex
Anus for patency
Ortolani (adduct and pull out) and Barlow (Adduct and push in) maneuver for hip dislocation
Check for pitting pedal edema
Back: For dimpling, spine deformities, a tuft of hair
Suckling: Infant will press lips against object pressed against roof of mouth and make sucking motions report as strong and sustained if normal
Moro: Occurs when the baby’s head suddenly shifts in position or there is a sudden loud sound. The infant will extend legs and head while the arms are initially extended, but afterward, arms are flexed and the hands clenched into fists.
Grasp: When object is placed in infant’s hand and strokes the palm, infant’s fingers will close and grasp with a palmar grasp.
Rooting: Infant turns head towards anything that strokes mouth or cheek until object is found