Biopsycholgy an der University Of Cambridge | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für biopsycholgy an der University of Cambridge

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ANS what it do?

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- governs the brains involuntary activities and is self-regulating.

- controls vital functions in the body e.g., breathing, heart rates, digestion and sexual arousal.

- without conscious awareness .

- controls centres that are in the brain stem.

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ANS sub parts?

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parasympathetic branch:

- relaxes the body, rest and digest


sympathetic branch:

- arouses the body, fight or flight

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SNS and ANS both contain sensory and motor nerves

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sensory: (afferent)

- nerves transmit impulses from peripheral organs to the CNS.


motor: (efferent)

- nerves that transmit impulses from the CNS out to the Peripheral to cause an effect or a response.

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diff of ANS and SNS?

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SNS:

- voluntary

- controls skeletal muscles and movements

- carries commands from the motor cortex


ANS:

- involuntary

- controls muscles, internal organs and glands of the body.

- controls centres are in the brain stem 

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what is the motor neuron structure and function?

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structure:

- short dendrites and long axons


Function:

- connect the CNS to the effector e.g muscles or glands.

- carries info from the brain to the muscles and glands.

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structure and function of sensory?

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strutcure:

- long dendrites and short axons


Function:

- carries message from the PNS to the CNS.

- carries info from the sensory organs towards the brain.

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structure and function of relay?

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structures:

- short and short dendrites and axons


functions:

- these connect the sensory neurons to the motor or other relay neurons.

- carry info to and from the brain.

- involved in analysing info and deciding how to respond.

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what are the process of synaptic transmission?

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1) an electrical impulse (action potential) reaches the presynaptic terminal.


2) causes vesicles in the presynaptic neuron to fuse with the presynaptic membrane and release neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft.


3) neurotransmitters cross the synaptic cleft.


4) NT combine with the receptors in the postsynaptic membrane.


5) neurotransmitters will cause a stimulation of postsynaptic receptors of either, excitatory or inhibitory. 

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what are excitatory and inhibitory NT?

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excitatory:

- increase the likelihood of an action potential to increases neural activity.

- if NT is excitatory then post synaptic neurons is more likely to fire an impulse.

- e.g. adrenaline 


inhibitory:

- decrease the likelihood of an action potential so decreases neural activation.

- post synaptic neuron less likely to fire and impulse

- e.g. GABA. 

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Summation?

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a nerve cell has multiple connections to other nerve cells and can receive both inhibitory and excitatory NT at a time.

- the likelihood of cells firing is determined by adding up the excitatory and inhibitory input (summation) 

.

- if net effect if inhibitory then neuron will less likely to fire, and vise versa.  

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3 glands and their functions

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pineal gland:

- receives info from the SCN and releases the hormone melatonin, induces sleep.


pituitary gland:

- controls releases of hormones from other glands, causes other glands to secrete their hormones.

- located in the brain, called the master gland, cause it controls the release of hormones from all the other glands in the body.

- releases ACTH to response to stress, stimulates the adrenal gland to produce cortisol.


adrenal glands:

- secretes adrenaline and controls the sympathetic division in the fight r flight response.

- 2 adrenal glands sit on top of kidney, outer part is adrenal cortex and inner is adrenal medulla, medulla releases adrenaline and noradrenaline.

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what does the SNS do?

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- part of the PNS, responsible for controlling muscle movement and receiving info from the sensory receptors..

- involved in reflex actions without the CNS.

-carries commands from the motor cortex 

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Q:

ANS what it do?

A:

- governs the brains involuntary activities and is self-regulating.

- controls vital functions in the body e.g., breathing, heart rates, digestion and sexual arousal.

- without conscious awareness .

- controls centres that are in the brain stem.

Q:

ANS sub parts?

A:

parasympathetic branch:

- relaxes the body, rest and digest


sympathetic branch:

- arouses the body, fight or flight

Q:

SNS and ANS both contain sensory and motor nerves

A:

sensory: (afferent)

- nerves transmit impulses from peripheral organs to the CNS.


motor: (efferent)

- nerves that transmit impulses from the CNS out to the Peripheral to cause an effect or a response.

Q:

diff of ANS and SNS?

A:

SNS:

- voluntary

- controls skeletal muscles and movements

- carries commands from the motor cortex


ANS:

- involuntary

- controls muscles, internal organs and glands of the body.

- controls centres are in the brain stem 

Q:

what is the motor neuron structure and function?

A:

structure:

- short dendrites and long axons


Function:

- connect the CNS to the effector e.g muscles or glands.

- carries info from the brain to the muscles and glands.

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

structure and function of sensory?

A:

strutcure:

- long dendrites and short axons


Function:

- carries message from the PNS to the CNS.

- carries info from the sensory organs towards the brain.

Q:

structure and function of relay?

A:

structures:

- short and short dendrites and axons


functions:

- these connect the sensory neurons to the motor or other relay neurons.

- carry info to and from the brain.

- involved in analysing info and deciding how to respond.

Q:

what are the process of synaptic transmission?

A:

1) an electrical impulse (action potential) reaches the presynaptic terminal.


2) causes vesicles in the presynaptic neuron to fuse with the presynaptic membrane and release neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft.


3) neurotransmitters cross the synaptic cleft.


4) NT combine with the receptors in the postsynaptic membrane.


5) neurotransmitters will cause a stimulation of postsynaptic receptors of either, excitatory or inhibitory. 

Q:

what are excitatory and inhibitory NT?

A:

excitatory:

- increase the likelihood of an action potential to increases neural activity.

- if NT is excitatory then post synaptic neurons is more likely to fire an impulse.

- e.g. adrenaline 


inhibitory:

- decrease the likelihood of an action potential so decreases neural activation.

- post synaptic neuron less likely to fire and impulse

- e.g. GABA. 

Q:

Summation?

A:

a nerve cell has multiple connections to other nerve cells and can receive both inhibitory and excitatory NT at a time.

- the likelihood of cells firing is determined by adding up the excitatory and inhibitory input (summation) 

.

- if net effect if inhibitory then neuron will less likely to fire, and vise versa.  

Q:

3 glands and their functions

A:

pineal gland:

- receives info from the SCN and releases the hormone melatonin, induces sleep.


pituitary gland:

- controls releases of hormones from other glands, causes other glands to secrete their hormones.

- located in the brain, called the master gland, cause it controls the release of hormones from all the other glands in the body.

- releases ACTH to response to stress, stimulates the adrenal gland to produce cortisol.


adrenal glands:

- secretes adrenaline and controls the sympathetic division in the fight r flight response.

- 2 adrenal glands sit on top of kidney, outer part is adrenal cortex and inner is adrenal medulla, medulla releases adrenaline and noradrenaline.

Q:

what does the SNS do?

A:

- part of the PNS, responsible for controlling muscle movement and receiving info from the sensory receptors..

- involved in reflex actions without the CNS.

-carries commands from the motor cortex 

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