A Level Chemistry (OCR A) an der University Of Cambridge | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für A Level Chemistry (OCR A) an der University of Cambridge

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is periodicity?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The arrangement of chemical elements in periods showing repeating trends in physical and chemical properties. 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe first ionisation energy and successive ionisation energies.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • 1st IE: The energy needed to remove 1 mol of electrons from 1 mol of gaseous atoms to create ions of +1 charge. 
  • Successive IE: The energy needed to remove a second/third electron from each ion in 1 mole of gaseous 1/2+ ions to give gaseous 2/3+ ions. 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain metallic bonding.


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Strong electrostatic attraction between positive ions and delocalised electrons. 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain a giant metallic lattice structure.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

A 3D structure of positive ions and delocalised electrons, bonded together by strong metallic bonds. 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe the electrical conductivity of giant metallic lattices.

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High electrical conductivity. This is because they have delocalised electrons that can move to carry the charge. 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe the solubility of giant metallic lattices. 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

They do not dissolve. Rather than dissolving, interactions with polar solvents lead to reactions. 

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What are the features of a neutron?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- In nucleus
- Mass of 1
- Neutral charge
- n

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the properties of water?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- Water has 2 lone pairs on oxygen & 2 H atoms each H2O molecule can form 4 H bonds. 


- Liquid H2O is denser than solid ice = Hydrogen bonds are slightly longer & holds H2O molecules further apart in an open lattice. 


- Ice lattice breaks = arrangement of H bonds is broken. When water boils, the H bonds are broken completely. 


- Water has London Forces & H bonds (additional forces & stronger than other intermolecular forces) so more energy is needed to overcome hydrogen bonds = higher melting & boiling point. 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Why do metals have high melting and boiling points?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

High temperatures are needed to overcome the strong electrostatic attraction between cations and delocalised electrons. Thus, boiling/melting point is high. 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What are the features of atoms?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- The charge on a proton is equal but opposite to the charge of an electron. 


- Nearly all mass is in the nucleus. 


- Protons + Electrons = balanced charge. 


- Neutrons holds the nucleus together despite the electrostatic repulsion between the protons. Most atoms contain the same, or more, number of neutrons to protons. The larger the nucleus, the more nuclei needed. 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe the melting and boiling points of giant covalent lattices. 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Very high. Lots of energy is required to overcome the strong covalent bonds between atoms. 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
State what is meant by the term isotopes.
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Atoms of the same element with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. 
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Q:

What is periodicity?

A:

The arrangement of chemical elements in periods showing repeating trends in physical and chemical properties. 

Q:

Describe first ionisation energy and successive ionisation energies.

A:
  • 1st IE: The energy needed to remove 1 mol of electrons from 1 mol of gaseous atoms to create ions of +1 charge. 
  • Successive IE: The energy needed to remove a second/third electron from each ion in 1 mole of gaseous 1/2+ ions to give gaseous 2/3+ ions. 
Q:

Explain metallic bonding.


A:

Strong electrostatic attraction between positive ions and delocalised electrons. 

Q:

Explain a giant metallic lattice structure.

A:

A 3D structure of positive ions and delocalised electrons, bonded together by strong metallic bonds. 

Q:

Describe the electrical conductivity of giant metallic lattices.

A:

High electrical conductivity. This is because they have delocalised electrons that can move to carry the charge. 

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Describe the solubility of giant metallic lattices. 

A:

They do not dissolve. Rather than dissolving, interactions with polar solvents lead to reactions. 

Q:

What are the features of a neutron?

A:

- In nucleus
- Mass of 1
- Neutral charge
- n

Q:

What are the properties of water?

A:

- Water has 2 lone pairs on oxygen & 2 H atoms each H2O molecule can form 4 H bonds. 


- Liquid H2O is denser than solid ice = Hydrogen bonds are slightly longer & holds H2O molecules further apart in an open lattice. 


- Ice lattice breaks = arrangement of H bonds is broken. When water boils, the H bonds are broken completely. 


- Water has London Forces & H bonds (additional forces & stronger than other intermolecular forces) so more energy is needed to overcome hydrogen bonds = higher melting & boiling point. 

Q:

Why do metals have high melting and boiling points?

A:

High temperatures are needed to overcome the strong electrostatic attraction between cations and delocalised electrons. Thus, boiling/melting point is high. 

Q:

What are the features of atoms?

A:

- The charge on a proton is equal but opposite to the charge of an electron. 


- Nearly all mass is in the nucleus. 


- Protons + Electrons = balanced charge. 


- Neutrons holds the nucleus together despite the electrostatic repulsion between the protons. Most atoms contain the same, or more, number of neutrons to protons. The larger the nucleus, the more nuclei needed. 

Q:

Describe the melting and boiling points of giant covalent lattices. 

A:

Very high. Lots of energy is required to overcome the strong covalent bonds between atoms. 

Q:
State what is meant by the term isotopes.
A:
Atoms of the same element with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. 
A Level Chemistry (OCR A)

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