3) FAB T2 - Abdomen And Pelvis an der University Of Cambridge | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für 3) FAB T2 - Abdomen and Pelvis an der University of Cambridge

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Which organs are protected by the lower ribs?

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Much of the abdominal cavity lies under cover of the lower ribs, for the domes of the diaphragm arch high above the costal margin. 


Therefore, the liver and spleen, much of the stomach, the upper poles of the kidneys, and both adrenals are protected by the lower ribs.

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Where does the abdominal cavity project backwards into?


What does this region accommodate?

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A substantial part of the abdominal cavity projects backwards into the pelvic cavity


This cavity accommodates the sigmoid colon (last part of bowel, attached to the rectum) and ileum (final section of small intestine) in addition to the pelvic organs.

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What is the transpyloric plane and where is it located?

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An important landmark is the transpyloric plane , a transverse plane lying halfway between the suprasternal notch and the pubic symphysis, approximately around the L1 vertebral body (end of spinal cord).


Pyloric = relating to or affecting the region where the stomach opens into the duodenum

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Which bones form the posterior abdominal wall?

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The posterior abdominal wall is formed by ribs 9, 10, 11 and 12 posterior to the diaphragm and all five lumbar vertebrae, which are curved in a convex forwards direction and tend to push into the
abdomen. 


Part of the posterior abdominal wall is also formed by the iliac bones.

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Give the four functions of the anterior abdominal wall.

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1. All four muscles move the trunk, with rectus abdominis as the most powerful flexor.


2. They can depress the ribs (except for transversus abdominis)


3. They compress the abdomen in coughing, sneezing, and expulsive efforts.


4. They support the abdominal viscera.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Give details of the lymphatic drainage above and below umbilicus (lymph nodes).

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Above the umbilicus, lymph drains to the pectoral group of axillary nodes


Below the umbilicus, lymph drains to the superficial inguinal nodes.

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1) Give details of the entrance of the inguinal canal


2) Give details of the exit of the inguinal canal


3) Which part of the inguinal canal prevents abdominal contents from prolapsing through it?

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1) The entrance to the canal is the deep ring, an opening in the transversalis fascia lying above the midpoint of the inguinal ligament. 


The inferior epigastric artery ascends medial to it.


2) The exit is the superficial ring in the external oblique aponeurosis.


The opening is triangular, with the base of the triangle medial to the pubic tubercle, and its sides sloping upwards and laterally from the pubic tubercle and symphysis. 


The conjoint tendon protects it posteriorly.


3) The oblique passage of the inguinal canal through the three abdominal muscles prevents abdominal contents from prolapsing through it when the intra-abdominal pressure is raised.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Contents of the Inguinal Canal


1) What are the contents of the inguinal canal in the female?


2) What are the contents of the inguinal canal in the male?


3) What is the spermatic cord?


4) How does the iliolinguinal nerve enter the inguinal canal and what does it innervate?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

1) In the female, the inguinal canal transmits the round ligament of the uterus to the labia majora .


2) In the male , the vas deferens, accompanied by its artery and the testicular vessels, enters the deep ring.


As these structures pass along the inguinal canal, they receive a covering from every layer through which they pass.


3) The spermatic cord is the vas deferens and a vessel invested by all three layers, and is only complete when it exits from the superficial ring.

-> the layers = aponeuroses of  external, internal obliques and transversus abdominis


4) The ilioinguinal nerve enters the canal laterally by passing between internal and external oblique

It supplies the skin on the upper medial thigh, base of the penis, and the anterior scrotum or labia.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

1) What is the innervation of the abdominal muscles?


2) Which bundle runs between the the internal oblique and transversus abdominis?

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1) T7-12

L1 (ilioinguinal nerve) for the lower fibres of internal oblique and transversus abdominis where they form the conjoint tendon


2) The intercostal neurovascular bundle runs between internal oblique and transversus abdominis.

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1) What is the stomach and what are its three basic functions?

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1) The stomach is the most dilated part of the gastrointestinal tract, three basic functions:


- storing food 

- mixing food with gastric secretions to form chyme

- controlling discharge to the small intestine via the pylorus

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

At what level does the oesophagus enter the stomach?

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It passes through the diaphragm to enter the stomach at T10

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Give 6 anatomical and physiological factors that act together to prevent gastro-oesophageal reflux.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS), a specialised segment of the circular muscle layer in the distal oesophagus.



The diaphragmatic crura, especially the encircling fibres of the right crus which exert a radial pressure on the lower oesophagus, often referred to as the pinchcock effect


The acute angle of entry of the oesophagus into the stomach, known as the angle of His, which helps to form a type of flap valve.


The phreno-oesophageal ligament, formed of two thickened bands of elastin-rich connective tissue, which effectively tethers the abdominal oesophagus to the diaphragm.


The lateral pressure on the walls of the intra-abdominal segment of the oesophagus.


The apposition (positioning side-by-side) of rosette-like mucosal folds at the gastro-oesophageal junction.

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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen 3) FAB T2 - Abdomen and Pelvis Kurs an der University of Cambridge - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

Which organs are protected by the lower ribs?

A:

Much of the abdominal cavity lies under cover of the lower ribs, for the domes of the diaphragm arch high above the costal margin. 


Therefore, the liver and spleen, much of the stomach, the upper poles of the kidneys, and both adrenals are protected by the lower ribs.

Q:

Where does the abdominal cavity project backwards into?


What does this region accommodate?

A:

A substantial part of the abdominal cavity projects backwards into the pelvic cavity


This cavity accommodates the sigmoid colon (last part of bowel, attached to the rectum) and ileum (final section of small intestine) in addition to the pelvic organs.

Q:

What is the transpyloric plane and where is it located?

A:

An important landmark is the transpyloric plane , a transverse plane lying halfway between the suprasternal notch and the pubic symphysis, approximately around the L1 vertebral body (end of spinal cord).


Pyloric = relating to or affecting the region where the stomach opens into the duodenum

Q:

Which bones form the posterior abdominal wall?

A:

The posterior abdominal wall is formed by ribs 9, 10, 11 and 12 posterior to the diaphragm and all five lumbar vertebrae, which are curved in a convex forwards direction and tend to push into the
abdomen. 


Part of the posterior abdominal wall is also formed by the iliac bones.

Q:

Give the four functions of the anterior abdominal wall.

A:

1. All four muscles move the trunk, with rectus abdominis as the most powerful flexor.


2. They can depress the ribs (except for transversus abdominis)


3. They compress the abdomen in coughing, sneezing, and expulsive efforts.


4. They support the abdominal viscera.

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Give details of the lymphatic drainage above and below umbilicus (lymph nodes).

A:

Above the umbilicus, lymph drains to the pectoral group of axillary nodes


Below the umbilicus, lymph drains to the superficial inguinal nodes.

Q:

1) Give details of the entrance of the inguinal canal


2) Give details of the exit of the inguinal canal


3) Which part of the inguinal canal prevents abdominal contents from prolapsing through it?

A:

1) The entrance to the canal is the deep ring, an opening in the transversalis fascia lying above the midpoint of the inguinal ligament. 


The inferior epigastric artery ascends medial to it.


2) The exit is the superficial ring in the external oblique aponeurosis.


The opening is triangular, with the base of the triangle medial to the pubic tubercle, and its sides sloping upwards and laterally from the pubic tubercle and symphysis. 


The conjoint tendon protects it posteriorly.


3) The oblique passage of the inguinal canal through the three abdominal muscles prevents abdominal contents from prolapsing through it when the intra-abdominal pressure is raised.

Q:

Contents of the Inguinal Canal


1) What are the contents of the inguinal canal in the female?


2) What are the contents of the inguinal canal in the male?


3) What is the spermatic cord?


4) How does the iliolinguinal nerve enter the inguinal canal and what does it innervate?

A:

1) In the female, the inguinal canal transmits the round ligament of the uterus to the labia majora .


2) In the male , the vas deferens, accompanied by its artery and the testicular vessels, enters the deep ring.


As these structures pass along the inguinal canal, they receive a covering from every layer through which they pass.


3) The spermatic cord is the vas deferens and a vessel invested by all three layers, and is only complete when it exits from the superficial ring.

-> the layers = aponeuroses of  external, internal obliques and transversus abdominis


4) The ilioinguinal nerve enters the canal laterally by passing between internal and external oblique

It supplies the skin on the upper medial thigh, base of the penis, and the anterior scrotum or labia.

Q:

1) What is the innervation of the abdominal muscles?


2) Which bundle runs between the the internal oblique and transversus abdominis?

A:

1) T7-12

L1 (ilioinguinal nerve) for the lower fibres of internal oblique and transversus abdominis where they form the conjoint tendon


2) The intercostal neurovascular bundle runs between internal oblique and transversus abdominis.

Q:

1) What is the stomach and what are its three basic functions?

A:

1) The stomach is the most dilated part of the gastrointestinal tract, three basic functions:


- storing food 

- mixing food with gastric secretions to form chyme

- controlling discharge to the small intestine via the pylorus

Q:

At what level does the oesophagus enter the stomach?

A:

It passes through the diaphragm to enter the stomach at T10

Q:

Give 6 anatomical and physiological factors that act together to prevent gastro-oesophageal reflux.

A:

The lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS), a specialised segment of the circular muscle layer in the distal oesophagus.



The diaphragmatic crura, especially the encircling fibres of the right crus which exert a radial pressure on the lower oesophagus, often referred to as the pinchcock effect


The acute angle of entry of the oesophagus into the stomach, known as the angle of His, which helps to form a type of flap valve.


The phreno-oesophageal ligament, formed of two thickened bands of elastin-rich connective tissue, which effectively tethers the abdominal oesophagus to the diaphragm.


The lateral pressure on the walls of the intra-abdominal segment of the oesophagus.


The apposition (positioning side-by-side) of rosette-like mucosal folds at the gastro-oesophageal junction.

3) FAB T2 - Abdomen and Pelvis

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