Psychological Disorders an der University Of Amsterdam | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für Psychological Disorders an der University of Amsterdam

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Why is it very complicated to make a correct diagnosis about a particular disorder?


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  • have a clear and conclusive definition
  • the validity of the diagnosis must be high
  • disorders are culture-related must be considered.
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A syndrome is a disorder if the following criteria are met:


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  1. The syndrome is a limitation. There is suffering or limitation in daily functioning.
  2. The cause must be internal. A syndrome may not be caused by circumstances such as loss of a loved one, etc.
  3. The symptoms are not a consequence of free will.
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What is good about the DSM (5)?

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Focus on describing clearly observable behaviours that are easily recognizable

  • Reliability – Good! ­– Do the diagnoses of different psychologists about one person correspond to the DSM?
  • Validity – more difficult to test – Are the categories described in the DSM are significant for the diagnosis?
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What is a possible problem with diagnosis?

And its solution?

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Problem:

Labelling someone with a. diagnosis => negative effects (i.e., lowering self-esteem or stigmatization of environment)


Solution: Psychologist careful in his use of language when making a diagnosis. 

= The patient is not schizophrenic, he suffers from schizophrenia.

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How does culture influence disorders and diagnosis?

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Disorders: 

Syndromes that occur in one culture but not in another = enlarged forms of socially undesirable behaviour 


(i.e., In Japan, for example, tajiin kyofuso is one of the most frequently diagnosed diagnoses in men. This is the extreme fear of causing damage to another due to your own bizarre social behaviour or physical defect. According to them, blushing can cause damage. / Typical western disorders are eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia.)


How psychologists diagnose = i.e., homosexuality was first seen as a disorder due to damage from social prejudice and not due to internal condition.


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Irreversible disorders

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caused by irreversible brain damage


Examples are Down Syndrome, Autism and Alzheimer's

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Episodic disorders


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reversible, caused by heredity & i.e., stressful situations

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Framework for different causes of mental disorders (3 P's)

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  1. Predisposing causes =heredity, brain damage during birth or very stressful situations during pregnancy.
  2. Precipitating causes = Disorder is caused by a direct event in your life.
  3. Perpetuating causes = Consequences of a disorder that cause the disorder to continue as it started. 

Example: Depression-> fewer friends -> as a result the depression continues.

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Possible causes for the gender differences in disorder diagnosis

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  1. The extent to which certain symptoms are suppressed or reported.
  2. Expectations of therapists.
  3. Differences in stressful experiences.
  • Differences in social experiences of men and women
    • What women experience 
    • What is expected of women
4. Differences in response to stressful events.
  • Biological differences in responses (hormones)
    • Men tend to externalize their discomfort = more violence etc.
    • Women tend to internalize their discomfort = more depression etc. 
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Different perspectives in disorder diagnosis

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  • Biological perspective = the brain is ill
  • Cognitive/ learning-theoretical perspective = Person learned the wrong things
  • Sociocultural perspective = Problems are culturally determined
  • Psychodynamic perspective = Problems are due to unresolved unconscious conflicts
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Generalized anxiety disorder

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Anxiety disorder

  •  Symptoms:
    •  afraid of multiple things and quickly restless
    • muscle tension, irritation and sleep problems
  • About 6% of the population suffers from it
  • Hypervigilance = automatic attention to possible threats 
  • Cause = probably an overly active autonomic nervous system => caused by genes or traumatic experiences in early childhood
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Syndrome

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 = Set of interrelated symptoms


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Q:

Why is it very complicated to make a correct diagnosis about a particular disorder?


A:
  • have a clear and conclusive definition
  • the validity of the diagnosis must be high
  • disorders are culture-related must be considered.
Q:

A syndrome is a disorder if the following criteria are met:


A:
  1. The syndrome is a limitation. There is suffering or limitation in daily functioning.
  2. The cause must be internal. A syndrome may not be caused by circumstances such as loss of a loved one, etc.
  3. The symptoms are not a consequence of free will.
Q:

What is good about the DSM (5)?

A:

Focus on describing clearly observable behaviours that are easily recognizable

  • Reliability – Good! ­– Do the diagnoses of different psychologists about one person correspond to the DSM?
  • Validity – more difficult to test – Are the categories described in the DSM are significant for the diagnosis?
Q:

What is a possible problem with diagnosis?

And its solution?

A:

Problem:

Labelling someone with a. diagnosis => negative effects (i.e., lowering self-esteem or stigmatization of environment)


Solution: Psychologist careful in his use of language when making a diagnosis. 

= The patient is not schizophrenic, he suffers from schizophrenia.

Q:

How does culture influence disorders and diagnosis?

A:

Disorders: 

Syndromes that occur in one culture but not in another = enlarged forms of socially undesirable behaviour 


(i.e., In Japan, for example, tajiin kyofuso is one of the most frequently diagnosed diagnoses in men. This is the extreme fear of causing damage to another due to your own bizarre social behaviour or physical defect. According to them, blushing can cause damage. / Typical western disorders are eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia.)


How psychologists diagnose = i.e., homosexuality was first seen as a disorder due to damage from social prejudice and not due to internal condition.


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Q:

Irreversible disorders

A:

caused by irreversible brain damage


Examples are Down Syndrome, Autism and Alzheimer's

Q:

Episodic disorders


A:

reversible, caused by heredity & i.e., stressful situations

Q:

Framework for different causes of mental disorders (3 P's)

A:
  1. Predisposing causes =heredity, brain damage during birth or very stressful situations during pregnancy.
  2. Precipitating causes = Disorder is caused by a direct event in your life.
  3. Perpetuating causes = Consequences of a disorder that cause the disorder to continue as it started. 

Example: Depression-> fewer friends -> as a result the depression continues.

Q:

Possible causes for the gender differences in disorder diagnosis

A:
  1. The extent to which certain symptoms are suppressed or reported.
  2. Expectations of therapists.
  3. Differences in stressful experiences.
  • Differences in social experiences of men and women
    • What women experience 
    • What is expected of women
4. Differences in response to stressful events.
  • Biological differences in responses (hormones)
    • Men tend to externalize their discomfort = more violence etc.
    • Women tend to internalize their discomfort = more depression etc. 
Q:

Different perspectives in disorder diagnosis

A:
  • Biological perspective = the brain is ill
  • Cognitive/ learning-theoretical perspective = Person learned the wrong things
  • Sociocultural perspective = Problems are culturally determined
  • Psychodynamic perspective = Problems are due to unresolved unconscious conflicts
Q:

Generalized anxiety disorder

A:

Anxiety disorder

  •  Symptoms:
    •  afraid of multiple things and quickly restless
    • muscle tension, irritation and sleep problems
  • About 6% of the population suffers from it
  • Hypervigilance = automatic attention to possible threats 
  • Cause = probably an overly active autonomic nervous system => caused by genes or traumatic experiences in early childhood
Q:

Syndrome

A:

 = Set of interrelated symptoms


Psychological Disorders

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