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Weak AI & Strong AI

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Weak AI: 

Limited artificial intelligence, performs certain tasks in an (apparently) intelligent way


Artifical General Intelligence (AGI): 

Artificial intelligence that is just as general as human intelligence, can learn and perform all intellectual tasks that humans c


Strong AI: 

Artificial intelligence that thinks and understands (and is perhaps even conscious)

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A lot was going on around 1956

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- Simon & Newell (1956): Logic Theorist

• Often called the first AI program

• Aim: To program a machine to think, automated reasoning

• The Logic Theorist could prove theorems in symbolic logic

• E.g., ((P v Q) ⇒ (P v R)) ⇒ (P v (Q⇒R))

• Found one new proof that was more elegant than the existing one

• The term ”artificial intelligence” was coined in the same year

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John Searle (b. 1932)

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Philosopher with a broad scope

• Language (speech acts) • Intentionality

• Consciousness

• Social ontology

• Debate with Derrida

• Artifical intelligence

• …


Professor Emeritus at UC Berkeley until 2019

• Official ties to the university cut due to violation of sexual harassment policies

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Searle’s target


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Claims from proponents of Strong AI:


• An appropriately programmed computer literally has mental states, or literally understands

• An appropriately programmed computer can have intentionality

• AI programs explain how human cognition works


• Searle: 

All wrong

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Weak AI and Strong AI

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Weak AI: 

• Limited artificial intelligence, performs certain tasks in an (apparently) intelligent way 

• Deep Blue 

• AlphaGo 

• Siri 

• …


Strong AI: 

• Artificial intelligence that thinks and understands (and is perhaps even conscious)

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The Chinese Room

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...

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Some highlights of cognitive science

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• Good Old Fashioned AI (GOFAI) (1956)

• Neural networks: neural computation and learning by back-propagation (restart 1986)

• Embodied, embedded and dynamical cognition (start 1991 – 1995)

• Study of consciousness (start 1991 – 1996)

• Cognitive neuroscience (start 1990s)

• Deep learning (neural networks again, start 2010)

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Cognitive Science

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• Cognitive science is an interdisciplinary field devoted to exploring the nature of cognitive processes such as perception, reasoning, memory, attention, language, imagery, motor control, and problem-solving … [in short] to understand how the mind works.” (Website Yale University, CS Program)

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Noam Chomsky

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• Syntactic Structures (1957)


• Behaviorism: Children learn language, like everything else, through trial and error

• Chomsky: The basic syntactic structures of language are inborn and universal

• Formal/mathematical arguments: E.g., children are able to produce and endless number of new sentences

• The structure and psychology of language can be scientifically studied

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General questions

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1. What are theories and explanations in CS?

• Deductive derivations? Descriptions of mechanisms?


2. What is the role of computer modeling in CS?

• Do programs provide models of cognition? When does a computational model support a theory of cognition?


3. What are the relations among CS disciplines?

• E.g. Figure 2 (p. 244)

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Normative questions


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1. Should thinking be Bayesian?

• What is thinking / cognition?


2. How should people make decisions?

• Should decision-makers aim for maximizing expected utility?

• What is rational behavior?


3. How are norms established?

• E.g., reflective equilibrium

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The role of philosophy in CS

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• Philosophy does not provide foundational or a priori truths Instead:

• Generality - targeting questions of a broad nature

• Normativity - targeting questions that are not about how things are, but how they should be

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Q:

Weak AI & Strong AI

A:

Weak AI: 

Limited artificial intelligence, performs certain tasks in an (apparently) intelligent way


Artifical General Intelligence (AGI): 

Artificial intelligence that is just as general as human intelligence, can learn and perform all intellectual tasks that humans c


Strong AI: 

Artificial intelligence that thinks and understands (and is perhaps even conscious)

Q:

A lot was going on around 1956

A:

- Simon & Newell (1956): Logic Theorist

• Often called the first AI program

• Aim: To program a machine to think, automated reasoning

• The Logic Theorist could prove theorems in symbolic logic

• E.g., ((P v Q) ⇒ (P v R)) ⇒ (P v (Q⇒R))

• Found one new proof that was more elegant than the existing one

• The term ”artificial intelligence” was coined in the same year

Q:

John Searle (b. 1932)

A:

Philosopher with a broad scope

• Language (speech acts) • Intentionality

• Consciousness

• Social ontology

• Debate with Derrida

• Artifical intelligence

• …


Professor Emeritus at UC Berkeley until 2019

• Official ties to the university cut due to violation of sexual harassment policies

Q:

Searle’s target


A:

Claims from proponents of Strong AI:


• An appropriately programmed computer literally has mental states, or literally understands

• An appropriately programmed computer can have intentionality

• AI programs explain how human cognition works


• Searle: 

All wrong

Q:

Weak AI and Strong AI

A:

Weak AI: 

• Limited artificial intelligence, performs certain tasks in an (apparently) intelligent way 

• Deep Blue 

• AlphaGo 

• Siri 

• …


Strong AI: 

• Artificial intelligence that thinks and understands (and is perhaps even conscious)

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

The Chinese Room

A:

...

Q:

Some highlights of cognitive science

A:

• Good Old Fashioned AI (GOFAI) (1956)

• Neural networks: neural computation and learning by back-propagation (restart 1986)

• Embodied, embedded and dynamical cognition (start 1991 – 1995)

• Study of consciousness (start 1991 – 1996)

• Cognitive neuroscience (start 1990s)

• Deep learning (neural networks again, start 2010)

Q:

Cognitive Science

A:

• Cognitive science is an interdisciplinary field devoted to exploring the nature of cognitive processes such as perception, reasoning, memory, attention, language, imagery, motor control, and problem-solving … [in short] to understand how the mind works.” (Website Yale University, CS Program)

Q:

Noam Chomsky

A:

• Syntactic Structures (1957)


• Behaviorism: Children learn language, like everything else, through trial and error

• Chomsky: The basic syntactic structures of language are inborn and universal

• Formal/mathematical arguments: E.g., children are able to produce and endless number of new sentences

• The structure and psychology of language can be scientifically studied

Q:

General questions

A:

1. What are theories and explanations in CS?

• Deductive derivations? Descriptions of mechanisms?


2. What is the role of computer modeling in CS?

• Do programs provide models of cognition? When does a computational model support a theory of cognition?


3. What are the relations among CS disciplines?

• E.g. Figure 2 (p. 244)

Q:

Normative questions


A:

1. Should thinking be Bayesian?

• What is thinking / cognition?


2. How should people make decisions?

• Should decision-makers aim for maximizing expected utility?

• What is rational behavior?


3. How are norms established?

• E.g., reflective equilibrium

Q:

The role of philosophy in CS

A:

• Philosophy does not provide foundational or a priori truths Instead:

• Generality - targeting questions of a broad nature

• Normativity - targeting questions that are not about how things are, but how they should be

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