The Vertebrate Tree an der University of Alberta

Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen für The Vertebrate Tree an der University of Alberta

Arrow Arrow

Komplett kostenfrei

studysmarter schule studium
d

4.5 /5

studysmarter schule studium
d

4.8 /5

studysmarter schule studium
d

4.5 /5

studysmarter schule studium
d

4.8 /5

Lerne jetzt mit Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen für den Kurs The Vertebrate Tree an der University of Alberta.

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für The Vertebrate Tree an der University of Alberta auf StudySmarter:

Vertebrata

Synapomorphies (unique to vertebrates, not shared with other chordates)

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für The Vertebrate Tree an der University of Alberta auf StudySmarter:

Cyclostomata

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für The Vertebrate Tree an der University of Alberta auf StudySmarter:

Gnathostomata

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für The Vertebrate Tree an der University of Alberta auf StudySmarter:

Gnathostomata (jawed vertebrates) 

Synapomorphies (not present in Cyclostomata)

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für The Vertebrate Tree an der University of Alberta auf StudySmarter:

Chondrichthyes

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für The Vertebrate Tree an der University of Alberta auf StudySmarter:

Osteichthyes

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für The Vertebrate Tree an der University of Alberta auf StudySmarter:

Osteichthyes (bony fishes)
Synapomorphies of the Osteichthyes that are not shared with the Chondrichthyes are:

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für The Vertebrate Tree an der University of Alberta auf StudySmarter:

Actinopterygii

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für The Vertebrate Tree an der University of Alberta auf StudySmarter:

Sarcopterygii

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für The Vertebrate Tree an der University of Alberta auf StudySmarter:

Tetrapoda

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für The Vertebrate Tree an der University of Alberta auf StudySmarter:

Amniota

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für The Vertebrate Tree an der University of Alberta auf StudySmarter:

Synapsida

Kommilitonen im Kurs The Vertebrate Tree an der University of Alberta. erstellen und teilen Zusammenfassungen, Karteikarten, Lernpläne und andere Lernmaterialien mit der intelligenten StudySmarter Lernapp. Jetzt mitmachen!

Jetzt mitmachen!

Flashcard Flashcard

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für The Vertebrate Tree an der University of Alberta auf StudySmarter:

The Vertebrate Tree

Vertebrata

Synapomorphies (unique to vertebrates, not shared with other chordates)

1. In Vertebrata the notochord is supplemented or replaced by vertebral elements called
arcualia.
2. The pharyngeal slits of vertebrates are muscularized and predominantly function in
respiration (unlike non-vertebrate chordates where a non-muscularized pharynx functions in
filter feeding).
3. Vertebrates possess a distinct head including a cranium housing a tri-partite brain.

4. Vertebrates possess mineralized tissues including cartilage, bone, dentine and enamel.

and many more

The Vertebrate Tree

Cyclostomata

(hagfishes and lampreys)

The jawless fishes (extinct and extant agnathans) do not form a monophyletic group, because there are no synapomorphies shared by all jawless fishes. The extant agnathans are Myxiniformes (hagfishes) and Petromyzontiformes (lampreys) which may (or may not) form a monophyletic group. If they do form a monophyletic group, it is called Cyclostomata. The highly diverse agnathans include the earliest vertebrates and share the plesiomorphic character of lacking jaws (a symplesiomorphy).

The Vertebrate Tree

Gnathostomata

(jawed vertebrates)

The Vertebrate Tree

Gnathostomata (jawed vertebrates) 

Synapomorphies (not present in Cyclostomata)

● Presence of jaws
● in addition to arcualia, gnathostomes have vertebral centra - bony or cartilaginous rings that
surround or replace the notochord
● Paired fins - pectoral and pelvic

The tree shows that the Gnathostomata is divided into two groups: Chondrichthyes and
Osteichthyes.

The Vertebrate Tree

Chondrichthyes

(cartilaginous fishes)

The Chondrichthys are the sharks, skates, and chimaeras. These fishes are gnathostomes, so they share the synapomorphies of that group (jaws, paired fins and vertebral centra). The evolution of jaws resulted in a rapid radiation of vertebrate forms including extinct groups like the spiny acanthodians and heavily armored placoderms (presented in an assigned reading in the text book). Jaws increased the capacity for feeding, opening a variety of niches and allowing for much greater overall body size.

The Vertebrate Tree

Osteichthyes

(bony fishes)

The Vertebrate Tree

Osteichthyes (bony fishes)
Synapomorphies of the Osteichthyes that are not shared with the Chondrichthyes are:

● Operculum - a bony covering protecting the gills.
● Internal skeleton including endochondral bone

● Paired Lungs or a swim bladder - a gas-exchange organ typically used in respiration (lungs)
or for buoyancy (swim bladder, also called gas bladder)
The Osteichthyes is divided into two groups (see tree): Actinopterygii and Sarcopteryii

The Vertebrate Tree

Actinopterygii

(ray-finned fishes)

These fish have the fin supports internal to the body wall, so the fins are thin, with no clearly
visible musculature.

The Vertebrate Tree

Sarcopterygii

(fleshy-finned fishes, including the tetrapods)

Lobed-fins - the internal skeletal support for pectoral and pelvic fins is external to the body wall - precursor to the tetrapod limbs.

The Vertebrate Tree

Tetrapoda

● Distinct pattern of limb ossification - including distal elements (carpals, tarsals and
phalanges) formed from endochondral bone.
● Pelvic limbs with bony attachment to vertebral column.
● Zygopophyses - intervertebral processes help support weight across the vertebral column.
● Moveable muscular tongue

The Vertebrate Tree

Amniota

● Amniotic egg - extra-embryonic layers are produced by the embryo and provide protection,
nourishment and physiological regulation for the growing embryo.
● Keratinized epidermis - though some amphibians possess a few, simple keratinized
structures of the integument, all amniotes are covered with various keratinized skin
structures (scales, hair, feathers etc.)
● Costal ventilation - ribs and associated musculature aid in moving air in and out of the lungs.

Amniote Temporal Openings: Amniotes have long been classified based on the presence and number of openings in the temporal region of the skull. These openings, when present, allow for an elaboration and enlargement of musculature associated with the closure of the jaws. Early amniotes and extant turtles have no openings and are described as anapsids. Amniotes with a single pair of temporal openings (one on each side of the skull) are called synapsids and all of these animals are members of a clade called, not surprisingly, Synapsida. Amniotes with two pairs of temporal openings are called diapsids and include birds, and all extant reptiles (turtles are thought to be descended from a diapsid ancestor, but the modern turtles have lost the temporal openings).

The Vertebrate Tree

Synapsida

Synapomorphies - for the purposes of this course, we will focus on derived characteristics of extant synapsids (= Mammalia) as some of those listed below do not apply to more basal, extinct groups.

Single pair of temporal openings (synapsid)
● Three middle ear ossicles - derived from the quadrate and articular of the lower jaw, the
incus and malleus join the stapes (also found in Sauropsida) as bones of the middle ear
● Diphyodonty - two distinct tooth sets allow for differing feeding behavior in juveniles and
adults.
● Heterodonty - differentiation of tooth types along the tooth row enable processing of a variety
of food types in one jaw (some heterodonty evolved independently in Sauropsida)
● Secondary palate - separation of oral and nasal portions of the pharynx by a bony plate; this
aids in feeding while breathing (increased metabolism)
● Parasagittal gait - limbs less sprawling, move under the body creating a more upright posture
● Reduced lumbar ribs - allows for greater flexibility of the lower spine
● Increased zygopophyses - upright posture relies on increased intervertebral support
● Double occipital condyle - allows for greater dorsoventral flexion and rotational flexibility of
head
● Hair
● Mammary glands

Melde dich jetzt kostenfrei an um alle Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen für The Vertebrate Tree an der University of Alberta zu sehen

Singup Image Singup Image
Wave

Andere Kurse aus deinem Studiengang

Für deinen Studiengang The Vertebrate Tree an der University of Alberta gibt es bereits viele Kurse auf StudySmarter, denen du beitreten kannst. Karteikarten, Zusammenfassungen und vieles mehr warten auf dich.

Zurück zur University of Alberta Übersichtsseite

Was ist StudySmarter?

Was ist StudySmarter?

StudySmarter ist eine intelligente Lernapp für Studenten. Mit StudySmarter kannst du dir effizient und spielerisch Karteikarten, Zusammenfassungen, Mind-Maps, Lernpläne und mehr erstellen. Erstelle deine eigenen Karteikarten z.B. für The Vertebrate Tree an der University of Alberta oder greife auf tausende Lernmaterialien deiner Kommilitonen zu. Egal, ob an deiner Uni oder an anderen Universitäten. Hunderttausende Studierende bereiten sich mit StudySmarter effizient auf ihre Klausuren vor. Erhältlich auf Web, Android & iOS. Komplett kostenfrei. Keine Haken.

Awards

Bestes EdTech Startup in Deutschland

Awards
Awards

European Youth Award in Smart Learning

Awards
Awards

Bestes EdTech Startup in Europa

Awards
Awards

Bestes EdTech Startup in Deutschland

Awards
Awards

European Youth Award in Smart Learning

Awards
Awards

Bestes EdTech Startup in Europa

Awards
X

StudySmarter - Die Lernplattform für Studenten

StudySmarter

4.5 Stars 1100 Bewertungen
Jetzt entdecken
X

Gute Noten in der Uni? Kein Problem mit StudySmarter!

89% der StudySmarter Nutzer bekommen bessere Noten in der Uni.

50 Mio Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen
Erstelle eigene Lerninhalte mit Smart Tools
Individueller Lernplan & Statistiken


Lerne mit über 1 Millionen Nutzern in der kostenlosen StudySmarter App.

Du bist schon registriert? Hier geht‘s zum Login