- because of stereotype threat women make less aggressive offers are less likely to initiate negotiations and more likely to avoid negotiation when it comes to negotiating compensation
- gender differences are magnified in ambiguous situations e.g. when women have not enough information to have a good negotiation and when they are unaccountable
- so the said from the other said, the gender differences are reduced in unambiguous situations and when woman are accountable which means that women feel more comfortable in negotiating, make more assertive offers, are more likely to express their interests and are more resisting in working towards better terms
- also less differences when women are advocating for others than when advocating for themselves
- the reason why women are less assertive than men is because they are afraid of backlashes, which is a negative social reaction toward women who show counter-stereotypical behaviors
Study negotiation for car: men were offered better (lower) prices than women for the same script they used
Study cab (Peru): although same scriptmen: higher initial prices, final prices and more refusal male drivers more willing to capitulate to demanding male customers
Women make less aggressive offers
Women are less likely than men to initiate negotiations when it comes to negotiating compensation,
Women are more likely to avoid negotiations than men
Conditions that reinforce gender differences
- Women are more likely to be disadvantaged in weak situations with high ambiguity than in strong, unambiguous situations.
- Women in management jobs that lacked information about their colleagues' salaries earned dramatically lower starting salaries than their male counterparts; this difference disappeared in management jobs that had clear information about comparable salaries.
- When given a sense of responsibility, women feel more comfortable negotiating, are more likely to express their interests, make more confident offers, and negotiate better terms.
- In self-advocacy contexts, women fear that self-assertion leads to backlash, so they are less confident and achieve lower outcomes. However, when women advocate for others (third-party advocacy), they are more assertive and achieve better outcomes.
- Nonetheless, women are generally less assertive than men in negotiations, and a key factor is fear of backlash. Backlash refers to the negative social reaction toward women when they are seen as violating gender norms because they behave in counter-stereotypical ways.