Introduction To English Linguistics an der Universität Salzburg | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für Introduction to English Linguistics an der Universität Salzburg

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Syntax of Symbols 

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= Linear sequence, lights show one at a time, sequence is rule-governed

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Changes to vocabulary items over time

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= lexicalisation and idiosyncracy, semantic change - denotation --> semantic widening (barn), semantic narrowing (starve, disease), semantic change - connotation --> pejoration (worsening of connotation e.g. lewd), amelioration (improving, e.g. knight) may differ refionally --> may differ regionally

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Constituents of APs

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= modifiers (adverb phrases including degree adverbs e.g. very, quite = heads of APs), prepositional phrases (long in the arms)

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Allomorphy

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= affixal allomorphs (e.g. allomorphs of plural morpheme: cats, dogs, roses), stem allomorphs (commit --> commission)

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Lexeme --> three part symbol

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= form (orthographic/phonetic or number of forms), word class (e.g. word class label), meaning (semantic representation)

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Long and short vowels

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= some vowels are inherently shorter (i in kit) or longer (ee in street)

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Sense components and semantic fields

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= words have senses, senses have components (boy/girl share "+human" and "+young", hot/cold share "+temperature"), finding meaning components of words is called componential analysis

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Cardinal vowels

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= arbitrary auditory reference points (invented by Daniel Jones), 8 points on the vowel quadriliteral, can only be learned by listening

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Linguistic sign is differential

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= closed system, interdependence of meanings, red/green have opposite meanings 

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Stress pattern of compounds

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= lighthouse vs. light house, blackbird vs. black bird

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Obligatory plurals 

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= some nouns never occur without plural inflection (scissors, trousers)

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Attributive and predicate position

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= attributive position (the red sky) --> no constituents after head, sequencing restrictions: my little black dress vs. my black little dress. Predicate position (the sky is red) --> post-head constituents fine and sequence less relevant, my dress is little black but my dress is little and black (coordination without sequencing restrictions)

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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für deinen Introduction to English Linguistics Kurs an der Universität Salzburg - von Kommilitonen auf StudySmarter erstellt!

Q:

Syntax of Symbols 

A:

= Linear sequence, lights show one at a time, sequence is rule-governed

Q:

Changes to vocabulary items over time

A:

= lexicalisation and idiosyncracy, semantic change - denotation --> semantic widening (barn), semantic narrowing (starve, disease), semantic change - connotation --> pejoration (worsening of connotation e.g. lewd), amelioration (improving, e.g. knight) may differ refionally --> may differ regionally

Q:

Constituents of APs

A:

= modifiers (adverb phrases including degree adverbs e.g. very, quite = heads of APs), prepositional phrases (long in the arms)

Q:

Allomorphy

A:

= affixal allomorphs (e.g. allomorphs of plural morpheme: cats, dogs, roses), stem allomorphs (commit --> commission)

Q:

Lexeme --> three part symbol

A:

= form (orthographic/phonetic or number of forms), word class (e.g. word class label), meaning (semantic representation)

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Q:

Long and short vowels

A:

= some vowels are inherently shorter (i in kit) or longer (ee in street)

Q:

Sense components and semantic fields

A:

= words have senses, senses have components (boy/girl share "+human" and "+young", hot/cold share "+temperature"), finding meaning components of words is called componential analysis

Q:

Cardinal vowels

A:

= arbitrary auditory reference points (invented by Daniel Jones), 8 points on the vowel quadriliteral, can only be learned by listening

Q:

Linguistic sign is differential

A:

= closed system, interdependence of meanings, red/green have opposite meanings 

Q:

Stress pattern of compounds

A:

= lighthouse vs. light house, blackbird vs. black bird

Q:

Obligatory plurals 

A:

= some nouns never occur without plural inflection (scissors, trousers)

Q:

Attributive and predicate position

A:

= attributive position (the red sky) --> no constituents after head, sequencing restrictions: my little black dress vs. my black little dress. Predicate position (the sky is red) --> post-head constituents fine and sequence less relevant, my dress is little black but my dress is little and black (coordination without sequencing restrictions)

Introduction to English Linguistics

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