Economics Of Taxation an der Universität Potsdam | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für Economics of Taxation an der Universität Potsdam

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Tax definition (Germany)
(Chapter 2)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Payment
  • No special service in return
  • Levied by a jurisdiction on the basis of a general rule
  • Aims at generating public revenues 
  • Tariffs are special taxes
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Tax principals
(Chapter 2)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Ability to pay principle 
  • Horizontal justice: equal income should be taxed identically
  • Vertical justice: higher ability to pay should not result in lower tax burden
  • Income as a measure of ability to pay
Benefit principle
  • Who benefits?
Decision neutrality
  • Market efficiency calls for undistorted decisions
  • But: green taxes
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Tax types
(Chapter 2)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Direct taxes 
  • Fall on legal or natural persons and may condition on special characteristics of the tax prayer (e.g. Income tax) 
Indirect taxes 
  • Based on sales or transactions, no consideration of personal characteristics (e.g. VAT) 
  • Assumption of tax shifting
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Specific taxes
(Chapter 2)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
= Unit taxes
  • Producer price (p): net receipt per unit sold
  • Consumer price (q): gross price including tax
  • Tax wedge (t) = q-p
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Ad valorem tax
(Chapter 2)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
= proportional to producer price
  • Net ad valorem tax: given tax rate q, the consumer price is: q=p(1+θ)
  • Gross ad valorem tax: the rate r is applied to the tax inclusive amount: (1-τ)q=p
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Tax base
(Chapter 2)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Measure (income, sales, wealth, etc.) to which tax scale is applied to. 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Tax scale
(Chapter 2)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
T=T(y)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Average tax rate
(Chapter 2)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
=T(y)/y
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Marginal tax rate
(Chapter 2)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
T'=dT/dy
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Progressive/regressive/constant taxation
(Chapter 2) 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Progressive Taxation: average tax increases in income (if marginal tax rate is greater than average tax rate) 
  • Regressive taxation: avg. rate decreases in income
  • Constant avg. rate: proportional taxation
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Tax revenue elasticity
(Chapter 2)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
By how much does revenue change if the tax base changes by one percent? 

η(T,y) = δT/δy*y/T=marginal rate/average rate

η>1 -> progressive scale
η=1 -> proportional scale
η<1 -> regressive scale
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Concepts Tax Incidence 
(Chapter 3)
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Absolute tax incidence: burden of taxation when all other taxes and expenditures are assumed constant

Differential tax incidence:  1€ of tax revenue of tax A is substituted by 1€ of tax revenue of tax B

Budget incidence: joint tax and expenditure increase
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  • 116 Lernmaterialien

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Q:
Tax definition (Germany)
(Chapter 2)
A:
  • Payment
  • No special service in return
  • Levied by a jurisdiction on the basis of a general rule
  • Aims at generating public revenues 
  • Tariffs are special taxes
Q:
Tax principals
(Chapter 2)
A:
Ability to pay principle 
  • Horizontal justice: equal income should be taxed identically
  • Vertical justice: higher ability to pay should not result in lower tax burden
  • Income as a measure of ability to pay
Benefit principle
  • Who benefits?
Decision neutrality
  • Market efficiency calls for undistorted decisions
  • But: green taxes
Q:
Tax types
(Chapter 2)
A:
Direct taxes 
  • Fall on legal or natural persons and may condition on special characteristics of the tax prayer (e.g. Income tax) 
Indirect taxes 
  • Based on sales or transactions, no consideration of personal characteristics (e.g. VAT) 
  • Assumption of tax shifting
Q:
Specific taxes
(Chapter 2)
A:
= Unit taxes
  • Producer price (p): net receipt per unit sold
  • Consumer price (q): gross price including tax
  • Tax wedge (t) = q-p
Q:
Ad valorem tax
(Chapter 2)
A:
= proportional to producer price
  • Net ad valorem tax: given tax rate q, the consumer price is: q=p(1+θ)
  • Gross ad valorem tax: the rate r is applied to the tax inclusive amount: (1-τ)q=p
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
Tax base
(Chapter 2)
A:
Measure (income, sales, wealth, etc.) to which tax scale is applied to. 
Q:
Tax scale
(Chapter 2)
A:
T=T(y)
Q:
Average tax rate
(Chapter 2)
A:
=T(y)/y
Q:
Marginal tax rate
(Chapter 2)
A:
T'=dT/dy
Q:
Progressive/regressive/constant taxation
(Chapter 2) 
A:
  • Progressive Taxation: average tax increases in income (if marginal tax rate is greater than average tax rate) 
  • Regressive taxation: avg. rate decreases in income
  • Constant avg. rate: proportional taxation
Q:
Tax revenue elasticity
(Chapter 2)
A:
By how much does revenue change if the tax base changes by one percent? 

η(T,y) = δT/δy*y/T=marginal rate/average rate

η>1 -> progressive scale
η=1 -> proportional scale
η<1 -> regressive scale
Q:
Concepts Tax Incidence 
(Chapter 3)
A:
Absolute tax incidence: burden of taxation when all other taxes and expenditures are assumed constant

Differential tax incidence:  1€ of tax revenue of tax A is substituted by 1€ of tax revenue of tax B

Budget incidence: joint tax and expenditure increase
Economics of Taxation

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