Action and Cognition an der Universität Osnabrück

CitySTADT: Osnabrück

CountryLAND: Deutschland

Kommilitonen im Kurs Action and Cognition an der Universität Osnabrück erstellen und teilen Zusammenfassungen, Karteikarten, Lernpläne und andere Lernmaterialien mit der intelligenten StudySmarter Lernapp.

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Kommilitonen im Kurs Action and Cognition an der Universität Osnabrück erstellen und teilen Zusammenfassungen, Karteikarten, Lernpläne und andere Lernmaterialien mit der intelligenten StudySmarter Lernapp.

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Lerne jetzt mit Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen für den Kurs Action and Cognition an der Universität Osnabrück.

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Action and Cognition an der Universität Osnabrück auf StudySmarter:

Explain the mechanisms and properties of action potentials. Carefully detail the sequence of events that occur.

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Action and Cognition an der Universität Osnabrück auf StudySmarter:

What are symptoms of visual neglect? Compare the effects of a leasion of the right part of the retina in both eyes to the often observed effects after right parietal lesion.

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Action and Cognition an der Universität Osnabrück auf StudySmarter:

Give an account of a typical case of
Grapheme --> Color synesthesia. Include etiology, symptoms and objective measurement.

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Action and Cognition an der Universität Osnabrück auf StudySmarter:

Give a description and interpretation of the timing of responses and attentional effects in areas V1, V2 and V4.

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Action and Cognition an der Universität Osnabrück auf StudySmarter:

Describe the shadowing task. What does it test and what are the results?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Action and Cognition an der Universität Osnabrück auf StudySmarter:

Give a detailed description of an experiment investigating effects of attention on neuronal responses in area V1 of macaque monkey using recordings with extracellular electrodes.

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Action and Cognition an der Universität Osnabrück auf StudySmarter:

How can you demonstrate that the effects of attention are most noticeable in the presence of competing stimuli. Describe an example of a fMRI experiment with human subjects.

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Action and Cognition an der Universität Osnabrück auf StudySmarter:

Describe the early steps process of color vision including the role of illumination, scene and photoreceptors.

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Action and Cognition an der Universität Osnabrück auf StudySmarter:

What is synesthesia?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Action and Cognition an der Universität Osnabrück auf StudySmarter:

Describe the cortical pathway involved in color processing with the focus on connectivity

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Action and Cognition an der Universität Osnabrück auf StudySmarter:

Describe how the compartments in macaque monkey V2 are defined and focus on their role in color processing.

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Action and Cognition an der Universität Osnabrück auf StudySmarter:

How can visual neglect be measured objectively?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Action and Cognition an der Universität Osnabrück auf StudySmarter:

Action and Cognition

Explain the mechanisms and properties of action potentials. Carefully detail the sequence of events that occur.

  • a neuron has a so called resting potential (inside negativ charged, outside positive charged)
  • if this membrane potential increases over a certain threshold it causes voltage-gated ion channels to open and the cell depolarizes
  • through these ion channels sodium flows into the cell causing the membrane potential to further increase
  • throughout the axon the signal is transported via opening sodium channels which cause an action potential
  • through the rapid sodium influx the polarity of the plasma membrane reverses and the ion channels then rapidly close
  • sodium ions are then actively transported out of the cell and potassium channels open, causing an outward current of potassium 
  • the cell repolarises until it reaches a small hyperpolarization
  • after that the membrane potential comes back to the restinf potential

Action and Cognition

What are symptoms of visual neglect? Compare the effects of a leasion of the right part of the retina in both eyes to the often observed effects after right parietal lesion.

  • Symptoms of visual neglect are that patients do not perceive their left side.
  • they only draw on the right side and only eat on the right even if there is smth on the left without recognising it
  • for neglect not only vision is affected but all senses
  • they perceive the global images often only on the right, local processing on both sides mostly
  • when having a leasion in the right parts of the retina one would be blind on this sides and therefor wouldn’t be able to actually see something on the left
  • after a right parietal leasion one isn’t blind on the left but can’t consciously perceive what is happening on the left side, the information isn’t processed correctly
  • this is since in the right parietal lobe most of the attentional system is located and when its damaged one isn’t really able to pay attention to ones left side

Action and Cognition

Give an account of a typical case of
Grapheme --> Color synesthesia. Include etiology, symptoms and objective measurement.

  • When having Grapheme -> Color synesthesia typically one associates a grapheme with a certain color
  • this association is consistent across time, which means the color one perceives for a grapheme doesn’t change over time
  • genreally for synesthesia one cannot help but perceive the color when the grapheme is mentioned or shown
  • Often passed down in families
  • Can be shortly or permanently evoked by drugs or strokes etc
  • causes of such synesthesia may be that when learning in school the brain is restructured and through this restructering errors may occur which in some way create a connection between the near visual word form area and V4
  • one can measure synesthesia by for example asking subjects what color they perceive for certain graphemes over years and look if it changes
  • or one can look which color is perceived for some number and see if the subject can solve equations faster when the colour of the result is displayed

Action and Cognition

Give a description and interpretation of the timing of responses and attentional effects in areas V1, V2 and V4.

  • response timing: 35ms V1, 40ms V2, 65ms V4
  • bottom-up processing
  • attentional effects on firing rate: 26% V1, 44% V2, 74% V4
  • attentional effects are observable earlier, stronger and in more neurons at higher levels

Action and Cognition

Describe the shadowing task. What does it test and what are the results?

  • participant hears story on each ear
  • has to focus on one story and repeat it
  • good in task when:
    • messages read by different vioces
    • messages played through speakers located in different parts of the room
  • poor in task when: 
    • messages read by same voice
    • messages played through speakers that are near each other
    • mention participants name in unattended side
  • test what influences our attention, if we can attend to more than one stimulus at a time, tests the early selection theory
  • test results: for good shadowing participant can answer questions to attended story, for bad shadowing participant can’t answer any questions
  • results seem to support theory of early selection

Action and Cognition

Give a detailed description of an experiment investigating effects of attention on neuronal responses in area V1 of macaque monkey using recordings with extracellular electrodes.

  • monkey sitts infront of screen and one screen is to his left where stimuli are presented
  • Monkey sitting, fixating in middle of screen, record brain region depending on attention (some), second screen on right where we show a stimulus, bit cell activity when we have visual stimulus, even if monkey doesn’t pay attention to it
  • Then monkey fixate middle but attend screen, much more activity
  • when monkey shall also reach to stimulus, then we also see a strong neuron response
  • Attention modulates firing rates.

Action and Cognition

How can you demonstrate that the effects of attention are most noticeable in the presence of competing stimuli. Describe an example of a fMRI experiment with human subjects.

  • pictures with four different pictures once sequentially and once competing shown in fMRI
  • fMRI concerned with how suppression interacts with attention
  • present patient with different pictures in different regions of periphery, react when they see a target picture
  • interested in time point when there is picture in lower left area
  • once show all pictures together
  • when participants don’t attend at all, with sequentiell presentation good BOLD response, when all shown simultaneously lower response
  • when attended activity stays higher when all pictures shown together
  • bar plot shows that we have a stronger suppression in higher areas
  • Modulation of suppression at extrastriate stages may be a mechanism by which attention filters out unwanted information

Action and Cognition

Describe the early steps process of color vision including the role of illumination, scene and photoreceptors.

  • under normal conditions sun is shining with a wide spectrum
  • spectra are labeled by wavelengths
  • Specific spectral distribution for each light source
  • the light of the sun hits an item for example an apple
  • this apple absorbs some of the wavelengths and reflects some others
  • the reflected wavelengths of the apple fall onto the retina
  • the different wavelengths photons are absorbed by different wavelengths cones 
  • there are three types of these cones (short, middle, long) and depending how much of these different cones get activated from a certain stimulus we perceive a certain color
  • alpha and beta cells receive the input of the different cones and project it to the magno and parvocellular layers of the LGN
  • the parvocellular cells are then mediating the color processes
  • Compute cone activation pattern by means of spectral distribution of reflected light 

Action and Cognition

What is synesthesia?

  • the experience of a sense other than the one stimulated
  • for example when one sees colors when listening to tones

Action and Cognition

Describe the cortical pathway involved in color processing with the focus on connectivity

  • the cones are connected to the alpha and beta cells, to alpha cells are many cones connected, to beta cells sometimes only one cone
  • alpha cells then project to the magnocellular layers of the LGN, the beta cells to the parvocellular layers
  • specefically parvocellular cells are mediating color processes
  • input to magnocellular layers mixed therfor react to any color, so not color selective
  • projections from magnocellular layer to 4C alpha
  • parvocellular projects to 4C beta and from there to 4B or to the blobs
  • from there then to secondary visual cortex where specifically the thin stripes contain many color selective neurons

Action and Cognition

Describe how the compartments in macaque monkey V2 are defined and focus on their role in color processing.

  • Compartments are defined by hystological staining
  • in V2 have the thin, thick and inter stripes
  • more than half of the color selective cells are in thin stripes, fewer in thick and inter stripes but not 0
  • so no clean division between color processing and rest of processing

Action and Cognition

How can visual neglect be measured objectively?

  • visual neglect can be measured by various tests, for example one can test how a subject copies pictures and how the subject reacts when presented to stimuli both left and right
  • clinical observation
  • it may is also possible to measure a visual neglect by using fMRI and trying to follow the line of processing which is taking place in neglect patients
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