Applied Grammar II an der Universität Marburg | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für Applied Grammar II an der Universität Marburg

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Amplifiers

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Amplifiers are words which strengthen the content of the clause. They are usually adverbs of extent/degree.

Example:
  • I totally disagree with you. 



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Anti-progressive Verbs

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Definition 1


Some categories of verbs tend to be anti-progressive:
  • Verbs of inert perception (feel, smell) 
  • Verbs of intert cognition (know, believe)
  • Verbs of attitude (love, hate)
  • State verbs of having and being. 


Definition 2


Future progressive & future perfect progressive verb phrases tend to be anti-passive.
Intransitive verbs and stative verbs also also infrequent in the passive voice. 


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Aspect

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There are three aspects:
  1. perfect
  2. progressive
  3. perfect progressive



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Attitude Adverbials

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Attitude adverbials express the speakers attitude towards a proposition.
Attitude adverbials can often be re-phrased using that-clauses with adjectives.

Example:
Thankfully, everything I studied came up on the test.

I am thankful that every thing I studied came up on the test. 



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Backshift

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Backshift is a phenomenon triggered by past tense reporting verbs. If the reporting verb is in the past tense, all subsequent verb phrases undergo a *backshift (move back in time) and it triggers changes in things like pronouns and place and time adverbials.

Example:
"We are going to watch a movie on Friday night."
Ella said that were going to watch a movie on Friday night.

* There are exceptions to this tendency. If the statement is believed to still be true at the moment of reporting there is no backshift. Here's an example:
Aoife: "I hate sand."
Aoife said she hates sand. (No backshift because it's still true.)



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Backshift tense changes

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Past tense reporting trigger the following changes:

present simple --> past simple
present progressive --> past progressive
present perfect --> past perfect
present perfect progressive --> past perfect progressive

primary modal forms --> secondary modal forms

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Bounded Verbs

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Bounded verbs have a built-in idea of completeness.

They walked home.

Walked is bounded in this instance because the action obviously ended when they got home.

*Be careful lots of verbs can be both bounded/unbounded depending on their context. 



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Central modals - primary forms

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The primary forms of the central modals are:
  1. can
  2. may 
  3. shall 
  4. will
  5. must*
These forms of the verbs tend to co-occur with present or future time.

*must has only one form 



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Central modals

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Definition 1


There are nine central modals:
  1. can
  2. could
  3. will 
  4. would
  5. shall
  6. should
  7. may
  8. might
  9. must


Definition 2


Modal verb phrases are constructed as follows:

central modal + infinitive

Examples:
  1. can do
  2. could read
  3. will be 
Central modals precede the subject in yes/no questions and the negator not.

Examples:

May I borrow your pen?
You may not borrow my pen!

Could you help me?
I will not help you!



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Central modals - secondary forms

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The secondary forms of the central modals are:
  1. could
  2. might
  3. should 
  4. would
  5. had to*
These forms of the central modals tend to co-occur with past time meanings.

* The meaning of must in the past is had to.



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Central modals - tense

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Central modals (and some semi-modals) are never marked for tense instead modals have primary and secondary forms which are associated with past, present or future time meanings (semantic categories).

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Alternative ways to express conditionals

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There are many ways to introduce conditional clauses that do not include the use of an if-clause but instead make use of other adverbial clauses to introduce a conditional clause. These are sometimes called hidden conditionals.


Here are some examples:

  • even if
  • on (the) condition that
  • unless*
  • in case
  • whether (or not)
  • what if
  • not ... unless
  • as long as 
  • but for + noun phrase
  • otherwise
  • provided that
  • given that
  • assuming that
  • granted that

*Negative adverbials in the initial position trigger inversion! 

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Q:

Amplifiers

A:


Amplifiers are words which strengthen the content of the clause. They are usually adverbs of extent/degree.

Example:
  • I totally disagree with you. 



Q:

Anti-progressive Verbs

A:

Definition 1


Some categories of verbs tend to be anti-progressive:
  • Verbs of inert perception (feel, smell) 
  • Verbs of intert cognition (know, believe)
  • Verbs of attitude (love, hate)
  • State verbs of having and being. 


Definition 2


Future progressive & future perfect progressive verb phrases tend to be anti-passive.
Intransitive verbs and stative verbs also also infrequent in the passive voice. 


Q:

Aspect

A:


There are three aspects:
  1. perfect
  2. progressive
  3. perfect progressive



Q:

Attitude Adverbials

A:


Attitude adverbials express the speakers attitude towards a proposition.
Attitude adverbials can often be re-phrased using that-clauses with adjectives.

Example:
Thankfully, everything I studied came up on the test.

I am thankful that every thing I studied came up on the test. 



Q:

Backshift

A:


Backshift is a phenomenon triggered by past tense reporting verbs. If the reporting verb is in the past tense, all subsequent verb phrases undergo a *backshift (move back in time) and it triggers changes in things like pronouns and place and time adverbials.

Example:
"We are going to watch a movie on Friday night."
Ella said that were going to watch a movie on Friday night.

* There are exceptions to this tendency. If the statement is believed to still be true at the moment of reporting there is no backshift. Here's an example:
Aoife: "I hate sand."
Aoife said she hates sand. (No backshift because it's still true.)



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Q:

Backshift tense changes

A:

Past tense reporting trigger the following changes:

present simple --> past simple
present progressive --> past progressive
present perfect --> past perfect
present perfect progressive --> past perfect progressive

primary modal forms --> secondary modal forms

Q:

Bounded Verbs

A:


Bounded verbs have a built-in idea of completeness.

They walked home.

Walked is bounded in this instance because the action obviously ended when they got home.

*Be careful lots of verbs can be both bounded/unbounded depending on their context. 



Q:

Central modals - primary forms

A:


The primary forms of the central modals are:
  1. can
  2. may 
  3. shall 
  4. will
  5. must*
These forms of the verbs tend to co-occur with present or future time.

*must has only one form 



Q:

Central modals

A:

Definition 1


There are nine central modals:
  1. can
  2. could
  3. will 
  4. would
  5. shall
  6. should
  7. may
  8. might
  9. must


Definition 2


Modal verb phrases are constructed as follows:

central modal + infinitive

Examples:
  1. can do
  2. could read
  3. will be 
Central modals precede the subject in yes/no questions and the negator not.

Examples:

May I borrow your pen?
You may not borrow my pen!

Could you help me?
I will not help you!



Q:

Central modals - secondary forms

A:


The secondary forms of the central modals are:
  1. could
  2. might
  3. should 
  4. would
  5. had to*
These forms of the central modals tend to co-occur with past time meanings.

* The meaning of must in the past is had to.



Q:

Central modals - tense

A:

Central modals (and some semi-modals) are never marked for tense instead modals have primary and secondary forms which are associated with past, present or future time meanings (semantic categories).

Q:

Alternative ways to express conditionals

A:

There are many ways to introduce conditional clauses that do not include the use of an if-clause but instead make use of other adverbial clauses to introduce a conditional clause. These are sometimes called hidden conditionals.


Here are some examples:

  • even if
  • on (the) condition that
  • unless*
  • in case
  • whether (or not)
  • what if
  • not ... unless
  • as long as 
  • but for + noun phrase
  • otherwise
  • provided that
  • given that
  • assuming that
  • granted that

*Negative adverbials in the initial position trigger inversion! 

Applied Grammar II

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