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Lernmaterialien für Softwaretechnik an der Universität Mannheim

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Domain Model

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A domain model is a visual representation of conceptual classes or real world objects in the domain of interest

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Architectural Centralized Control Flow  Model

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a dedicated control sub-system takes responsibility for managing the execution of other sub-systems, two principal models –

  • call-return model
    • top-down subroutine model where control starts at the top of a subroutine hierarchy and moves downwards 
  • manager model
    • one system component controls the stopping, starting and coordination of other system processes
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Strategy: Object Behavioral

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Intent 

  •  Strategy lets the algorithm vary independently from clients that use it 

 Applicability 

  •  many related classes differ only in their behaviour, i.e. different variants of an algorithm are required 
  •  a class defines many behaviours, and these appear as multiple conditional statements in its operations. 
    •  related branches can be moved into their own strategy class 
  •  an algorithm uses data that clients should not know about 
    •  the strategy pattern can be used to avoid exposing complex, algorithm-specific data structures 

Consequences 

  •  no conditional statements for selecting behaviour 
  •  clients must be aware of different strategies 
  •  increased number of objects 
  • communication overheads 


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Elementary Business Processes (EBP)

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a task performed by one person in one place at one time, in response to a business event, which adds measurable business value and leaves data in a consistent state. (e.g. approve Credit)

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Good architecture strives to achieve..

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  • cohesive responsibilities
  • separation of concerns
  • protected variations
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Goals of system's architecture

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  • Performance
    • localise operations in large-grained components to minimise sub- system communication
  • Security

    • use a layered architecture with critical assets in inner layers

  • Safety

    • isolate safety-critical components

  • Availability

    • include redundant components in the architecture

  • Maintainability

    • usefine-grained, self-contained component

  • Scalability

    • consider concurrency effects in case you need to distribute the system

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What is a process model?

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 A software process model (“Vorgehensmodell”) is an abstract representation of a software development process 

  • it is a description of a process from some particular perspective 
  • it recommends guidelines for – 
    • which activities are to be carried out 
    • how and in what order they are to be carried out 
    • i.e. phases and milestones are defined 
    • who has to carry out what 
    • i.e. roles and responsibilities are determined 
    • which products are to be built until when 
    • i.e. artifacts, documents, and other work results 
    • which techniques and tools are to be used 

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Golden Rules for Interface Design

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Important design principles for ergonomic interactive systems are 


  1. strive for consistency 
    • use terminology, menus, color layout etc in a consistent manner
  2. cater to universal usability
    •  system should be usable for e.g. novices and experts alike
  3.  offer informative feedback
    •  for every user action there should be a system feedback 
  4. design closed dialog sequences 
    • give clear feedback that the user knows when a process is finished 
  5.  prevent errors 
    •  the system should protect users from making errors 
  6.  permit easy reversal of actions 
    • not only in case of an error 
  7.  avoid surprises 
    • users want to feel in control of the user interfaces 
  8.  reduce short-term memory load 
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Domain Models

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The fundamental idea in object-oriented analysis is to decompose a domain of interest 

  • into individual conceptual classes or objects
    • or just things that we are aware of 
  • in order to be able to “rebuild” the real world in the object-oriented software system later 
    •  aim for a “low representational gap”


A domain model is a visual representation of conceptual classes or real world objects in the domain of interest 

  •  it does not describe software classes or objects 
    • but provides inspiration for designing software objects later 
  •  domain models are also know as 
    • conceptual models 
    •  domain object models 
    •  analysis object models
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Fully Dressed Use Case Sections

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  • Primary Actor
  • (Stakeholders & Interests)
  • Preconditions
  • Post conditions
  • Main Success Scenario
  • Extensions
  • (Special Requirements)
  • (Open Issues)
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Contract Creation Guidelines

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  1. Identify system operations from the SSDs
  2. For complex system operations or which are not clear in the use case, construct a contract
  3. To describe the postconditions, use the following categories
    1. instance creation and deletion
    2. attribute modification
    3. associations formed and broken
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Architectural event-driven Control Flow Models

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driven by externally generated events where the timing of the event is outside the control of the sub-systems which process the event –

  • broadcast models
    • an event is broadcast to all sub-systems
    • any sub-system which can handle the event may do so
  • interrupt-driven models 
    • real-time systems where interrupts are detected by an interrupt handler and passed to other component 
    • callbacks of user interfaces (Swing Listeners)
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Q:

Domain Model

A:

A domain model is a visual representation of conceptual classes or real world objects in the domain of interest

Q:

Architectural Centralized Control Flow  Model

A:

a dedicated control sub-system takes responsibility for managing the execution of other sub-systems, two principal models –

  • call-return model
    • top-down subroutine model where control starts at the top of a subroutine hierarchy and moves downwards 
  • manager model
    • one system component controls the stopping, starting and coordination of other system processes
Q:

Strategy: Object Behavioral

A:

Intent 

  •  Strategy lets the algorithm vary independently from clients that use it 

 Applicability 

  •  many related classes differ only in their behaviour, i.e. different variants of an algorithm are required 
  •  a class defines many behaviours, and these appear as multiple conditional statements in its operations. 
    •  related branches can be moved into their own strategy class 
  •  an algorithm uses data that clients should not know about 
    •  the strategy pattern can be used to avoid exposing complex, algorithm-specific data structures 

Consequences 

  •  no conditional statements for selecting behaviour 
  •  clients must be aware of different strategies 
  •  increased number of objects 
  • communication overheads 


Q:

Elementary Business Processes (EBP)

A:

a task performed by one person in one place at one time, in response to a business event, which adds measurable business value and leaves data in a consistent state. (e.g. approve Credit)

Q:

Good architecture strives to achieve..

A:
  • cohesive responsibilities
  • separation of concerns
  • protected variations
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Goals of system's architecture

A:
  • Performance
    • localise operations in large-grained components to minimise sub- system communication
  • Security

    • use a layered architecture with critical assets in inner layers

  • Safety

    • isolate safety-critical components

  • Availability

    • include redundant components in the architecture

  • Maintainability

    • usefine-grained, self-contained component

  • Scalability

    • consider concurrency effects in case you need to distribute the system

Q:

What is a process model?

A:

 A software process model (“Vorgehensmodell”) is an abstract representation of a software development process 

  • it is a description of a process from some particular perspective 
  • it recommends guidelines for – 
    • which activities are to be carried out 
    • how and in what order they are to be carried out 
    • i.e. phases and milestones are defined 
    • who has to carry out what 
    • i.e. roles and responsibilities are determined 
    • which products are to be built until when 
    • i.e. artifacts, documents, and other work results 
    • which techniques and tools are to be used 

Q:

Golden Rules for Interface Design

A:

Important design principles for ergonomic interactive systems are 


  1. strive for consistency 
    • use terminology, menus, color layout etc in a consistent manner
  2. cater to universal usability
    •  system should be usable for e.g. novices and experts alike
  3.  offer informative feedback
    •  for every user action there should be a system feedback 
  4. design closed dialog sequences 
    • give clear feedback that the user knows when a process is finished 
  5.  prevent errors 
    •  the system should protect users from making errors 
  6.  permit easy reversal of actions 
    • not only in case of an error 
  7.  avoid surprises 
    • users want to feel in control of the user interfaces 
  8.  reduce short-term memory load 
Q:

Domain Models

A:

The fundamental idea in object-oriented analysis is to decompose a domain of interest 

  • into individual conceptual classes or objects
    • or just things that we are aware of 
  • in order to be able to “rebuild” the real world in the object-oriented software system later 
    •  aim for a “low representational gap”


A domain model is a visual representation of conceptual classes or real world objects in the domain of interest 

  •  it does not describe software classes or objects 
    • but provides inspiration for designing software objects later 
  •  domain models are also know as 
    • conceptual models 
    •  domain object models 
    •  analysis object models
Q:

Fully Dressed Use Case Sections

A:
  • Primary Actor
  • (Stakeholders & Interests)
  • Preconditions
  • Post conditions
  • Main Success Scenario
  • Extensions
  • (Special Requirements)
  • (Open Issues)
Q:

Contract Creation Guidelines

A:
  1. Identify system operations from the SSDs
  2. For complex system operations or which are not clear in the use case, construct a contract
  3. To describe the postconditions, use the following categories
    1. instance creation and deletion
    2. attribute modification
    3. associations formed and broken
Q:

Architectural event-driven Control Flow Models

A:

driven by externally generated events where the timing of the event is outside the control of the sub-systems which process the event –

  • broadcast models
    • an event is broadcast to all sub-systems
    • any sub-system which can handle the event may do so
  • interrupt-driven models 
    • real-time systems where interrupts are detected by an interrupt handler and passed to other component 
    • callbacks of user interfaces (Swing Listeners)
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