Infectous Diseases And Vaccines an der Universität Für Bodenkultur Wien | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für Infectous Diseases and Vaccines an der Universität für Bodenkultur Wien

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When did we manage to eradicate smallpox?

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1980

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Name 4 Classes of prokaryotic pathogens!

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  • Chlamydiae
  • Rickettsiae
  • Mycoplasmas
  • Classic bacteria
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How is a causative microorganism defined, according to the Henle Koch postulates?

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  1. Microbe must be found in the diseased individual
  2. It must be possible to cause the disease with pure cultures of the pathogen
  3. The pathogen may not just be an accompanying pathogen of another pathogen
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Pathogenicity vs. Virulence

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An organism (species or strain) is defined as being pathogenic (or not), [-> fixed property of an organism/virus] and depending upon conditions, may exhibit different levels of virulence.


Also, a whole species (e.g. ) yersinia pestis is pathogenic(y/n.. in this case yes), while strains like y.p. orientalis or y.p. medievalis may be more pathogenic or less. -> species are considered pathogenic or not, while strains are considered more virulent or less.

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Susceptibility vs. Disposition

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Susceptibility -> the probability of a certain species (humans, pigs) to get infected in general. Genetically determined.(e.g. humans are newly susceptible to some flu strains)


Disposition -> The probability of an individual to get infected at a certain timepoint, influenced by all kinds of factors. (in humans, immune system, sleep, feed status)

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Minimum infective dose

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Smallest number of pathogen units required to cause an infection

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Colonization of bacteria. -> what means?

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Microorganisms "colonize" commensally live on e.g. skin or mucosa on the human body, no penetration.

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When can a colonizaiton of E.Coli on skin lead to an infeciton?

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When the pathogens somehow manage to enter the system by e.g. a cut in the skin, then are able to proliferate and the host reacts by e.g. redness and swelling.

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What is pathogen toxicity?

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Is is a measure for the host tissue damage. -> e.g. Yersinia pestis -> highly toxic -> leads to large necrosis.

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Name a few "resistance factors"!

Who has them?

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  • age
  • nutrition (how well fed)
  • climate
  • vaccination status
  • status of immune system
Not the pathogen, but the human!
Factors that decide, if a human will get sick after exposure to pathogen.
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Epidemic vs. Endemic vs. Pandemic

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Epidemic: increase of infections, locally and timely restricted


Endemic: Prevalence of infections, locally restricted, but not in time -> long times


Pandemic: Increase in Infections, limited in time but not locally restricted

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Mortality vs. Lethality

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Mortality: Probability to die of a certain disease: The number of deceased divided by the threatened population.

Lethality: Deaths per infected person *100 (e.g. 10%)

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Q:

When did we manage to eradicate smallpox?

A:

1980

Q:

Name 4 Classes of prokaryotic pathogens!

A:
  • Chlamydiae
  • Rickettsiae
  • Mycoplasmas
  • Classic bacteria
Q:

How is a causative microorganism defined, according to the Henle Koch postulates?

A:
  1. Microbe must be found in the diseased individual
  2. It must be possible to cause the disease with pure cultures of the pathogen
  3. The pathogen may not just be an accompanying pathogen of another pathogen
Q:

Pathogenicity vs. Virulence

A:

An organism (species or strain) is defined as being pathogenic (or not), [-> fixed property of an organism/virus] and depending upon conditions, may exhibit different levels of virulence.


Also, a whole species (e.g. ) yersinia pestis is pathogenic(y/n.. in this case yes), while strains like y.p. orientalis or y.p. medievalis may be more pathogenic or less. -> species are considered pathogenic or not, while strains are considered more virulent or less.

Q:

Susceptibility vs. Disposition

A:

Susceptibility -> the probability of a certain species (humans, pigs) to get infected in general. Genetically determined.(e.g. humans are newly susceptible to some flu strains)


Disposition -> The probability of an individual to get infected at a certain timepoint, influenced by all kinds of factors. (in humans, immune system, sleep, feed status)

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Minimum infective dose

A:

Smallest number of pathogen units required to cause an infection

Q:

Colonization of bacteria. -> what means?

A:

Microorganisms "colonize" commensally live on e.g. skin or mucosa on the human body, no penetration.

Q:

When can a colonizaiton of E.Coli on skin lead to an infeciton?

A:

When the pathogens somehow manage to enter the system by e.g. a cut in the skin, then are able to proliferate and the host reacts by e.g. redness and swelling.

Q:

What is pathogen toxicity?

A:

Is is a measure for the host tissue damage. -> e.g. Yersinia pestis -> highly toxic -> leads to large necrosis.

Q:

Name a few "resistance factors"!

Who has them?

A:
  • age
  • nutrition (how well fed)
  • climate
  • vaccination status
  • status of immune system
Not the pathogen, but the human!
Factors that decide, if a human will get sick after exposure to pathogen.
Q:

Epidemic vs. Endemic vs. Pandemic

A:

Epidemic: increase of infections, locally and timely restricted


Endemic: Prevalence of infections, locally restricted, but not in time -> long times


Pandemic: Increase in Infections, limited in time but not locally restricted

Q:

Mortality vs. Lethality

A:

Mortality: Probability to die of a certain disease: The number of deceased divided by the threatened population.

Lethality: Deaths per infected person *100 (e.g. 10%)

Infectous Diseases and Vaccines

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