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Lernmaterialien für Neuroscience 2 an der Universität Frankfurt am Main

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Although also a form of simple learning, associative learning is still a ... compared to non-associative learning.

Rather than learning about the ...  as in non-associative learning, the animal learns to ...

The 2 kinds of associative learning are;

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- more complex form of learning

- properties of one stimulus

- associate one type of stimulus with another

- classical & operant conditioning


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How are stages of fear memories defined through pharmacological manipulations?

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- If a drug given before, but not after, conditioning affects STM and LTM, it is said to disrupt acquisition (Acquisition (Learning))

- If a drug given before or after training has not effect on STM but impairs LTM, it is said to disrupt consolidation (consolidation)

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Which different neural mechanisms do STM and LTM involve?

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STM: experiences encoded by temporary synaptic modifications

LTM: during consolidation, temporary synaptic changes made permanent by synaptic plasticity mechanisms

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What are the 4 different types of (LTM) Implicit/Nondeclarative memory? Which brain regions are involved?

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- Procedural (skills & habits): Striatum

- Associative learning: 

-> emotional responses: amygdala

-> skeletal musculature: cerebellum

- Non-associative learning (habituation & sensitization): refelex pathways

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Why is fear conditioning a particularly attractive model for studying the neural mechanisms of learning & memory?

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- rapidly acquired (often after a single CS-US pairing)

- produces very long-lasting memories

- induction & expression of fear conditioning is under the control of discrete stimulus, CS & US, which are easily controlled by experimenter

- neural circuitry underlying classical (esp. auditory) fear conditioning is relatively well-understood

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What is the key brain region underlying fear conditioning?

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- the amygdala, particular the lateral nucleus of the amygdala for acquisition and consolidation of fear memory

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Definition Learning

Definition Memory

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Learning = acquisition of new knowledge or skills (change in behaviour)

Memory = process by that knowledge is encoded, stored and later retrieved

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stages of memory formation

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sensory experience -> memory acquisition -> STM (labile, temporary memory) -> memory consolidation -> LTM, only subset of STM converted (stable)

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Memories can be classified according to the ..

What are the 2 types of LTM?

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- nature of the information stored

-> Explicit memory (declarative): requires conscious awarenes

-> Implicit memory (nondeclarative): unconscious 

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Which memory do people mean in everyday uses of the word memory? What are the 2 subtypes of that memory?

Which brain region mediates this memory?

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Declarative/Explicit memory

-> facts (semantic) -> events (episodic)

- Medial temporal lobe (particularly hippocampus)

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What is operant conditioning?

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- operant conditioning is an associative learning that involves associating a specific behaviour with a reinforcing event (delivery of food reward)

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What neural mechanisms underlie memory acquisition?

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-During fear conditioning, there are GLUTAMATERGIC inputs from thalamus and cortex that carry info about CS and US 

-Released GLU binds to GLU receptors in LA neurons: including

-> AMPA receptor: ionotropic, when GLU binds, Na+ enters cell, resulting in depolarization

-> NMDA receptor: ionotropic, when GLU binds and there’s depolarization, Mg2+ ion gets removed and Ca2+ enters cell => coincidence detectors during synaptic plasticity & memory formation

-> mGlu receptor: when GLU binds, intracellular cascades are activated that lead to Ca2+ release from internal stores; released Ca2+ helps to mediate synaptic plasticity

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Q:

Although also a form of simple learning, associative learning is still a ... compared to non-associative learning.

Rather than learning about the ...  as in non-associative learning, the animal learns to ...

The 2 kinds of associative learning are;

A:

- more complex form of learning

- properties of one stimulus

- associate one type of stimulus with another

- classical & operant conditioning


Q:

How are stages of fear memories defined through pharmacological manipulations?

A:

- If a drug given before, but not after, conditioning affects STM and LTM, it is said to disrupt acquisition (Acquisition (Learning))

- If a drug given before or after training has not effect on STM but impairs LTM, it is said to disrupt consolidation (consolidation)

Q:

Which different neural mechanisms do STM and LTM involve?

A:

STM: experiences encoded by temporary synaptic modifications

LTM: during consolidation, temporary synaptic changes made permanent by synaptic plasticity mechanisms

Q:

What are the 4 different types of (LTM) Implicit/Nondeclarative memory? Which brain regions are involved?

A:

- Procedural (skills & habits): Striatum

- Associative learning: 

-> emotional responses: amygdala

-> skeletal musculature: cerebellum

- Non-associative learning (habituation & sensitization): refelex pathways

Q:

Why is fear conditioning a particularly attractive model for studying the neural mechanisms of learning & memory?

A:

- rapidly acquired (often after a single CS-US pairing)

- produces very long-lasting memories

- induction & expression of fear conditioning is under the control of discrete stimulus, CS & US, which are easily controlled by experimenter

- neural circuitry underlying classical (esp. auditory) fear conditioning is relatively well-understood

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

What is the key brain region underlying fear conditioning?

A:

- the amygdala, particular the lateral nucleus of the amygdala for acquisition and consolidation of fear memory

Q:

Definition Learning

Definition Memory

A:

Learning = acquisition of new knowledge or skills (change in behaviour)

Memory = process by that knowledge is encoded, stored and later retrieved

Q:

stages of memory formation

A:

sensory experience -> memory acquisition -> STM (labile, temporary memory) -> memory consolidation -> LTM, only subset of STM converted (stable)

Q:

Memories can be classified according to the ..

What are the 2 types of LTM?

A:

- nature of the information stored

-> Explicit memory (declarative): requires conscious awarenes

-> Implicit memory (nondeclarative): unconscious 

Q:

Which memory do people mean in everyday uses of the word memory? What are the 2 subtypes of that memory?

Which brain region mediates this memory?

A:

Declarative/Explicit memory

-> facts (semantic) -> events (episodic)

- Medial temporal lobe (particularly hippocampus)

Q:

What is operant conditioning?

A:

- operant conditioning is an associative learning that involves associating a specific behaviour with a reinforcing event (delivery of food reward)

Q:

What neural mechanisms underlie memory acquisition?

A:

-During fear conditioning, there are GLUTAMATERGIC inputs from thalamus and cortex that carry info about CS and US 

-Released GLU binds to GLU receptors in LA neurons: including

-> AMPA receptor: ionotropic, when GLU binds, Na+ enters cell, resulting in depolarization

-> NMDA receptor: ionotropic, when GLU binds and there’s depolarization, Mg2+ ion gets removed and Ca2+ enters cell => coincidence detectors during synaptic plasticity & memory formation

-> mGlu receptor: when GLU binds, intracellular cascades are activated that lead to Ca2+ release from internal stores; released Ca2+ helps to mediate synaptic plasticity

Neuroscience 2

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