World in Words an der Universität Duisburg-Essen

Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen für World in Words an der Universität Duisburg-Essen

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What are the two types of lexicon?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für World in Words an der Universität Duisburg-Essen auf StudySmarter:

What is a dictionary?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für World in Words an der Universität Duisburg-Essen auf StudySmarter:

What is a mental lexicon?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für World in Words an der Universität Duisburg-Essen auf StudySmarter:

What are the 4 characteristics of the mental lexicon?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für World in Words an der Universität Duisburg-Essen auf StudySmarter:

What two types of meaning relationships are there?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für World in Words an der Universität Duisburg-Essen auf StudySmarter:

What is sense?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für World in Words an der Universität Duisburg-Essen auf StudySmarter:

What is denotation?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für World in Words an der Universität Duisburg-Essen auf StudySmarter:

What are word fields?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für World in Words an der Universität Duisburg-Essen auf StudySmarter:

What periods of Latin influence are there?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für World in Words an der Universität Duisburg-Essen auf StudySmarter:

What words stem from the period before the coming of the Germanic tribes to England?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für World in Words an der Universität Duisburg-Essen auf StudySmarter:

What terms enter the language with the Roman Christianisation?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für World in Words an der Universität Duisburg-Essen auf StudySmarter:

What words enter the language in the early modern period?

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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für World in Words an der Universität Duisburg-Essen auf StudySmarter:

World in Words

What are the two types of lexicon?
- mental lexicon  
- dictionary 

World in Words

What is a dictionary?
This is what is compiled by individuals and used by others when they wish to
(i) know what a translation for a word in one language is,
(ii) know what the meaning of a word within a single language is.
Dictionaries are usually arranged in alphabetical order, though some are presented thematically or in reverse order, e.g. by the endings of words.


World in Words

What is a mental lexicon?
This is a body of lexical knowledge which each speaker has in his/her head, typically for one’s native language, but also for others, if these are present. The mental lexicon is arranged very differently from the dictionary.


World in Words

What are the 4 characteristics of the mental lexicon?
1) It is arranged by sense relations, typically by word field, but often by oppositions of meaning, e.g. left and right.
2) Retrieval is extremely fast, in fact not measurable, but can be hindered by a mental block.
3) Word are stored in networks of associations, both phonetic and semantic.
4) Words are stored with much connotational information, ultimately derived from the context in which they were acquired in early childhood.


World in Words

What two types of meaning relationships are there?
a) sense b) denotation

World in Words

What is sense?
The semantic relationship which obtains between words, e.g. cow calf, bull or horse, mare, stallion are related by sense. (German: Sinn)


World in Words

What is denotation?
The relationship between a word and the non-linguistic, ‘outside’ world. For instance, one could say that the denotation of cup is a small vessel- like object for holding beverages, usually placed on a saucer. The word mug is similar in its denotation, but the object is larger and thicker and not used with a saucer (German: Denotation)


World in Words

What are word fields?
A word field is a set of words which are related in their senses. Virtually all our knowledge of language is organised as word fields. Typical word fields from our surroundings would be clothes (shirt, blouse, trousers, slack, jacket, coat), furniture (chair, table, stool, bench), food (meat, vegetables, bread, sweets), utensils of various kinds (knives, forks, spoons), modes of transport (car, lorry, bicycle, motorbike, plane). From our conceptual world one could mention such word fields as mental ability (clever, smart, intelligent, bright; dumb, stupid, silly), motion (walk, run,saunter, trot), feelings (like, dislike, hate, abhor, love, adore, admire), actions (work, beaver, relax, idle).
It is typical of word fields that they subdivide into further word fields, e.g. food can be broken down into many sub-types. Subdivisions are usually determined by some general characteristic, e.g. cooked or raw food, liquid or solid food, with or without meat, dairy products and non-dairy products, etc.


World in Words

What periods of Latin influence are there?
- Continental Germanic period
- Christianisation period
- Early modern period

World in Words

What words stem from the period before the coming of the Germanic tribes to England?
Many trade terms stem from the period before the coming of the Germanic tribes to England, e.g. street from via strata ‘the paved way’, mile from mil(l)ia passum ‘a thousand steps’, cheese from caseus or wine from vinum. Note that all of these loan are also present in German: Straße, Meile, Käse, Wein.

World in Words

What terms enter the language with the Roman Christianisation?
Ecclesiastical terms enter the language with the Roman Christianisation of England from the south as of the end of the sixth century, e.g. monk from monacus or bishop from episcopus.

World in Words

What words enter the language in the early modern period?
With the expansion in the sciences from the 16th century onwards many words enter English from either Latin or Greek (the latter often via the former), e.g. biology, astronomy, geology, geography. Many Latin loans, however, served the function of filling a lexical gap in English, e.g. the adjectives were created where none were present in English or which were not stylistically neutral, e.g. equestrian as adjective to horse, marine as adjective to sea, aquatic as adjective to water.


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Literaturgeschichte komplett

Mediävistik II: Übersetzungskurs

Grammatische Grundlagen

World in Words

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