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f,v

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-Labiodental fricatives

<f>          fɔː ‖ fɔːr 

<v>          vɔːɪs 

<gh>, <ph>

enough, rough                          ɪˈnʌf, rʌf 

physics, photography             fəˈtɒgrəfɪ ‖ fəˈtɑːgrəfɪ 

Germans tend to confuse I w I and I v I  * welwət

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palatal fricatives

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 - voiceless palatal fricative [ ʃ  ]

shine, show, fashion

<-ion> - words

notion, nation

<s>

sure


voiced palatal fricative   I ʒ  I 

words of french origin 

measure, pleasure, illusion


Beware: voiced palatal fricative is not part of German phoneme inventory ( occurs in foreign words only, e.g. Gigolo, which not fully (exicalized)

-> Germans tend to substitute I ʒ I with I ʃ  I

* measure= meʃe

"pleasure = pleʃe

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θ&ð

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- interdental fricatives 

- referred to as TH 

   -> produced by placing your tongue  between your teeth 

    -> few languages have these sounds, so they are considered as very idiosyncratic

- learners of English tend to substitute them with I s I, I z I


- if you want to know if I θ I or I ð I, you have to distinguish between function word or content word 

- At beginning of function words always voiced  ð 

- at beginning of content words always voiceless θ 

-interdental fricatives before vowels mainly voiced weather,father, mother

- Exception: Greek/ Latin origin have voiceless I TH I before vowel

method, author, sympathy


interdental fricatives at the end of words you have to know: 

bath         bɑːθ

bathe       beɪð

wrath       rɒθ ‖ rɑːθ

scythe     saɪð



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Function word

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- little lexical meaning

   -> expresses grammatical relationships

- prepositions (of, at, in)

- pronouns (they, them)

- determiners (the, that)

- conjunctions ( and, that )

- auxiliary verbs ( have, be)

- particles ( no, not)



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content words

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- possess semantic content & contribute to the meaning of the sentence 

- include nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs

thinking, thanks, thorough

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the plosives

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                              v-                  v+

bilabial                 p                     b

alveolar                t                      d

velar                     k                      g 

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Classification

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lat.: consonare: to sound with 

- according to three pieces 

-> the place of articulation: where is the vocal tract obstructed

-> the voicing whether it is voiced or voiceless 

-> the manner of articulation: how the vocal tract is obstructed


- only sound with vowel sound 

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Manner

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main:

- plosive          <peter>

- affricates      <change> (-> only these two)

- fricatives       <vice>

- nasals            <man>


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p,b

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bilabial plosive

p = voiceless

- people, pan, cup, 

b= voiced 

- beer, Bob, rubber

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t, d

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- alveolar plosives

t = v-

-time, better, let 


d= v+

- dead, cold, riding

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voiced plosives

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- voiced plosives carry more vice in English than in German 

e.g.: god vs Gott

e.g.: ball vs Ball


- voiceless plosives in English are aspired

I p I -> [p^h] <pen> [p^h en ]

I t  I -> [t^h] <ten> [t^h en]

In romance languages voiceless plosives are not aspired!

e.g.: Paris in Eng. and French 


Note: Voiceless plosives are never aspired in Indian English


No aspiration in English when voiceless plosive is preceded by I s I 

speak, stand, sky, stay, spoil 

=> No need to transcripe/ mark the aspiration! -> Just remember it

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s, z

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<s> is always I S I at the beginning of words (v-)

sell, son, sun, 

sel, sʌn, sʌn 

In German <S> is always I z I at the beginning of words ( Sohn ) (v+)


- in the middle or the end of words unpredictable ( exept for the drivational morpheme) 

lose, loose, house, housis 

luːz, luːs, haʊs, haʊzɪz 

WHEN <c> represents an alveolar fricative, it is always voiceless!

ice, peace, face


 <z> 

- always represents voiced fricatives I z I

zeal, zone, hazy


<s> in the middle or the end of words is unpredictable (exept for the drivational morpheme)

lose, loose                         luːz, luːs 

house, houses                  haʊs, haʊzɪz 


<ss>

beware: looks as if it were always voiceless but isnt!

dissect, dissolve, possible, possess

daɪˈsekt,

dɪˈzɒlv ‖ dɪˈzɑːlv,


pɒsibəl ‖ pɑːsɪbəl,

pəˈzes 


When <c> represents an alveolar fricative, it is always voiceless!

ice, peace, face, joyce


Weekdays

Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday

tjuːzdeɪ,   wenzdeɪ,     θɜːzdeɪ‖θɝːzdeɪ

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Q:

f,v

A:

-Labiodental fricatives

<f>          fɔː ‖ fɔːr 

<v>          vɔːɪs 

<gh>, <ph>

enough, rough                          ɪˈnʌf, rʌf 

physics, photography             fəˈtɒgrəfɪ ‖ fəˈtɑːgrəfɪ 

Germans tend to confuse I w I and I v I  * welwət

Q:

palatal fricatives

A:

 - voiceless palatal fricative [ ʃ  ]

shine, show, fashion

<-ion> - words

notion, nation

<s>

sure


voiced palatal fricative   I ʒ  I 

words of french origin 

measure, pleasure, illusion


Beware: voiced palatal fricative is not part of German phoneme inventory ( occurs in foreign words only, e.g. Gigolo, which not fully (exicalized)

-> Germans tend to substitute I ʒ I with I ʃ  I

* measure= meʃe

"pleasure = pleʃe

Q:

θ&ð

A:

- interdental fricatives 

- referred to as TH 

   -> produced by placing your tongue  between your teeth 

    -> few languages have these sounds, so they are considered as very idiosyncratic

- learners of English tend to substitute them with I s I, I z I


- if you want to know if I θ I or I ð I, you have to distinguish between function word or content word 

- At beginning of function words always voiced  ð 

- at beginning of content words always voiceless θ 

-interdental fricatives before vowels mainly voiced weather,father, mother

- Exception: Greek/ Latin origin have voiceless I TH I before vowel

method, author, sympathy


interdental fricatives at the end of words you have to know: 

bath         bɑːθ

bathe       beɪð

wrath       rɒθ ‖ rɑːθ

scythe     saɪð



Q:

Function word

A:

- little lexical meaning

   -> expresses grammatical relationships

- prepositions (of, at, in)

- pronouns (they, them)

- determiners (the, that)

- conjunctions ( and, that )

- auxiliary verbs ( have, be)

- particles ( no, not)



Q:

content words

A:

- possess semantic content & contribute to the meaning of the sentence 

- include nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs

thinking, thanks, thorough

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Q:

the plosives

A:

                              v-                  v+

bilabial                 p                     b

alveolar                t                      d

velar                     k                      g 

Q:

Classification

A:

lat.: consonare: to sound with 

- according to three pieces 

-> the place of articulation: where is the vocal tract obstructed

-> the voicing whether it is voiced or voiceless 

-> the manner of articulation: how the vocal tract is obstructed


- only sound with vowel sound 

Q:

Manner

A:

main:

- plosive          <peter>

- affricates      <change> (-> only these two)

- fricatives       <vice>

- nasals            <man>


Q:

p,b

A:

bilabial plosive

p = voiceless

- people, pan, cup, 

b= voiced 

- beer, Bob, rubber

Q:

t, d

A:

- alveolar plosives

t = v-

-time, better, let 


d= v+

- dead, cold, riding

Q:

voiced plosives

A:

- voiced plosives carry more vice in English than in German 

e.g.: god vs Gott

e.g.: ball vs Ball


- voiceless plosives in English are aspired

I p I -> [p^h] <pen> [p^h en ]

I t  I -> [t^h] <ten> [t^h en]

In romance languages voiceless plosives are not aspired!

e.g.: Paris in Eng. and French 


Note: Voiceless plosives are never aspired in Indian English


No aspiration in English when voiceless plosive is preceded by I s I 

speak, stand, sky, stay, spoil 

=> No need to transcripe/ mark the aspiration! -> Just remember it

Q:

s, z

A:

<s> is always I S I at the beginning of words (v-)

sell, son, sun, 

sel, sʌn, sʌn 

In German <S> is always I z I at the beginning of words ( Sohn ) (v+)


- in the middle or the end of words unpredictable ( exept for the drivational morpheme) 

lose, loose, house, housis 

luːz, luːs, haʊs, haʊzɪz 

WHEN <c> represents an alveolar fricative, it is always voiceless!

ice, peace, face


 <z> 

- always represents voiced fricatives I z I

zeal, zone, hazy


<s> in the middle or the end of words is unpredictable (exept for the drivational morpheme)

lose, loose                         luːz, luːs 

house, houses                  haʊs, haʊzɪz 


<ss>

beware: looks as if it were always voiceless but isnt!

dissect, dissolve, possible, possess

daɪˈsekt,

dɪˈzɒlv ‖ dɪˈzɑːlv,


pɒsibəl ‖ pɑːsɪbəl,

pəˈzes 


When <c> represents an alveolar fricative, it is always voiceless!

ice, peace, face, joyce


Weekdays

Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday

tjuːzdeɪ,   wenzdeɪ,     θɜːzdeɪ‖θɝːzdeɪ

The Consonants

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