constitutional law an der Universität Bochum

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Lerne jetzt mit Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen für den Kurs constitutional law an der Universität Bochum.

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für constitutional law an der Universität Bochum auf StudySmarter:

Horizontal Separation of Powers



Beispielhafte Karteikarten für constitutional law an der Universität Bochum auf StudySmarter:

left over 

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für constitutional law an der Universität Bochum auf StudySmarter:

vice president 

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für constitutional law an der Universität Bochum auf StudySmarter:

Veto override

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für constitutional law an der Universität Bochum auf StudySmarter:

Veto and veto override

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für constitutional law an der Universität Bochum auf StudySmarter:

president

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für constitutional law an der Universität Bochum auf StudySmarter:

Executive 

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für constitutional law an der Universität Bochum auf StudySmarter:

amendment

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für constitutional law an der Universität Bochum auf StudySmarter:

Ratification

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für constitutional law an der Universität Bochum auf StudySmarter:

bill of rights 

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für constitutional law an der Universität Bochum auf StudySmarter:

Post-war Amendments

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für constitutional law an der Universität Bochum auf StudySmarter:

vertical separation of power 

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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für constitutional law an der Universität Bochum auf StudySmarter:

constitutional law

Horizontal Separation of Powers



Horizont = sunset = all three are next to each other —> shall be equal (which is not true) 

There are separated => they have each their own realm

The legislature legislates, the judiciary judicates and the executive executes 

This limits the other two branches in the power of the third

horizontal separation: why?

By giving each their own; like legislature the legislative process in order to for one not to have all the power in one hand 

constitutional law

left over 

  • Veto
  • Republican form of government no monarchy in any state 
  • Founding fathers (George wahsington, John Adames, James Madison, William Marburyy, Alexander Hamilton, Benjamin Franklin, John jay) idealistic when it comes to senate statesman and the president 
  • Federal System (union elements) 

constitutional law

vice president 

deputy of the president, head of the senate, when there is a tie he has a voting right. Traditionally by practice became a rather unimportant role in the US

Can challenge the presidents ability to fulfill his office with a majority of the cabinet. Can be impeached by congress. 

Requirements same as for the president 

  • 35 years of age 
  • 14 years of  resident of the US 
  • And problematic: natural born citizen 
  • Someone with us American parents but born in Canada cannot be president 
  • So this dispute would have to be put in front of the supreme court to determine what natural born citizen means 

constitutional law

Veto override

Veto override = a bill which comes into force after the president has objected to it and both houses have reconsiders the bill and voted in favor of it with a two third majority. 

constitutional law

Veto and veto override

aufm iPad

constitutional law

president

Head of state and head of government simultaneously- there is no other democratic state 

Requirements: 

35 years of age 

14 years of  resident of the US 

And problematic: natural born citizen 

Someone with us American parents but born in Canada cannot be president 

So this dispute would have to be put in front of the supreme court to determine what natural born citizen means 

Direct election: when you can vote the candidate for presidency 

US has direct election 

Processs of election through The electors a

Head of the executive, has powers over all branches of government. Can veto laws, appoint judges, make executive orders. He makes a set of the union address. Is chief commander in navy and army. 

Take an oath when inaugurated 

when there is no vice president the president nominates a vice president 

But this nominee needs a vote 

Why is the office vacant? People die or they take another job which is better than being vice president 

When the president is vacant: there is a speaker of the house; When there wouldn’t be a speaker there is a president per tempura and so on 

But there is no such regulation when the vice president office is vacant

The president can chose someone because they work with them etc. 

president himself says he is unable to do the job anymore 

He hands over the duties to the vice president 

By sending a letter to both heads of the two houses 

Vice president becomes acting president (meaing he isn’t president but he does everything that needs to be done by the president)

Example: when the president has to be operated and put to sleep that day, if the US is attacked during this time there would be no commander in chief, so the vice president became acting president

constitutional law

Executive 

One f the three branches of government. Head is the president

constitutional law

amendment

The congress can propose amendments 

It needs two thirds in both houses in the plenary session 

If they agree they send it off to the individual states and they need three fourth of the 50 states today need to ratify this proposed amendment according to their own rules 

—> vertical separation of powers, the state legislature has its own mechanism; something from the federal level that needs a ratification, the state will do that according to their procedural law 

This takes time 

If then three fourths agree, send it back to the national archive

Then it becomes an integral part of the constitution 

Difference between proposal date and enacted date 

All rules that are amended have to be constitutional —> set in the words „part of the constitution“ here 

Alternative amending: 

Two thirds of the legislature of the states can request a convention that proposes an amendment and those proposed amendments would then be send to the several states for three fourth ratification again 

And the conventions that the states call ratify 

Who can create a constitution ? The parliament, the legislature with rather super majority and setting up a separate body —> two different ideas

Some claim its not right that the congress as the representing body should only do the legislature and not have constitutional power —> because the legislature is bound to the constitutional rules; they would make their rules 

So an outside body is more free

No amendment could affect the  first and fourth clauses in the 9th section in the first article and no state without its consent can be deprived of its equal suffers 

—> slavery and citizenship 

constitutional law

Ratification

Ratification requirement for the federal constitution is a three fourth requirement 

But they learned from the convention that required 100 %

Here nine state out of thirteen 

But only 12 attended the constitutional convention 

Rhode Island was included but didn’t send delegate there 

Nine state were required to ratify 

question: as of when does this constitution have affect?

Whether State statute from Virginia in 19th century could be inconsistent with the constitution 

It could not because the constitution has not yet entered into force

The delegate to the constitution convention signed in sep 1787 sent it back to the confederate congress they wanted it to accept the constitution. Congress accepted + requested that this document is sent to the state for ratification and to send it back 

But does this congress continue to exist? The congress decided to stay in office until the ratifiacation goes through

Most states ratified in Oktober 1788, the congress said now that the constitution is ratified the members of the new congress need to assemble next spring march 

So the elections were conducted in this fall and the first congress in march in 1789 came together 

This is when the constitution came into affect 

Any law before could stay in affect; no retroactive applicability, so there could not be a contradiction 

So march 1789 it entered into force 

constitutional law

bill of rights 

ten amendments = bill of rights contain the fundamental rights 

religion / speech / press / assembly / petition II: arms

III: quartering soldiers

IV: unreasonable search and seizure / warrants

V: indictment of a grand jury / double jeopardy / self incrimination / due process of law / compensation

VI: trial / jury / territorial jurisdiction / accusations / confronting witnesses / counsel

VII: suits at common law / jury

VIII: bail / fine / cruel and unusual punishments 

IX: rights retained by the people

X: powers reserved to the states or the people

constitutional law

Post-war Amendments

13, 14, 15th amendment after 1865

constitutional law

vertical separation of power 

Vertical Separation doesn’t exist in all states but in all federal states

The US is a federal state 

Each state has a legislative, executive and judiciary AND there is a federal legislative, executive and judiciary in the US as a country 

(federals are regulated by the constitution)

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