Constitutional Law Fundamental Rights an der Universität Bochum | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für constitutional Law fundamental rights an der Universität Bochum

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VII: suits at common law / jury

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procedural guarantee to trail by jury is in the sixth amendment for criminal cases and in the seventh amendment for civil cases

"in suits at common law" 

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Desecrates

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 = deface, damage or otherwise physically mistreat in a way that the actor knows will seriously offend one or more persons likely to observe or discover his action 

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What does the Clear and present danger test entail?

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=First Amendment does not protect speech that approaches creating a clear and present danger of a significant evil that Congress has power to prevent (judge Holmes said) 


circumstances are important -> the right can be violated if they are being a danger, it is a question of proximity (Nähe) and degree


"words spoken in time of peace could be not protected by any individual right in times at war" 

- Schenck v US

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What does the doctrine of the stare decisis say? 

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Doctrine of stare decides says that the precedent decision is binding for that and all lower courts in all future similar cases 

Decision from the first instance is binding law for this court when there comes a future similar case

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Who limited the rights? 

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Ultimately the court decides whether a certain limitation is warranted through the so-called scrutiny tests


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requirements for a states/ governmental regulation which infringes a fundamental right to be constitutional with the o'brien test

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(1) it is within a constitutional power of the government (the government needs to be empowered to act) 

For example in Art 1 section 8 the constitution named the power of the government / legislative


(2) it needs to further an important or substantial governmental interest 

What is substantial or important interest? 


(3) balance : if the incidental restriction on the alleged freedom is no greater than it is essential to the furtherance of that governmental interest

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what is the precedent of Marbury v Madison ?

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This decision established judicial review 

Judicial review is the power of the court to declare legislative enactment void because they are contradictory / incompatible to the constitution -> John Marshall wrote this decision 


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Right to privacy concerning abortion - which amendments and decisions which content and precedents in the decisions?

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1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 9th, and the 14th Amendments


GRISWOLD v. STATE OF CONNECTICUT. 1965

->  marital privacy

Use of contraception In a marital relationship with the assistance of a physician is constitutional it falls within the individuals right to privacy 


the married couple in the intern relationship and in the relationship with their doctor needs a protected relationship and needs to provide to the married people to make decisions regarding to contraception 



EISENSTADT (state) v. William R. BAIRD. 1972

-> violation of the equal protection clause to only allow married people to abort 


Decision =  SC finds that the statute, viewed as a prohibition on contraception per se, violates the rights of single persons under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.


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Was Roes name real?

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Jane Roe is an Alias its not the real name, but her real identity needs to be protected 

John Doe and Jane Doe or John Roe etc are always used as an alias 

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Which test it used in Schenck v US?

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Clear and present danger test 

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Where is the freedom of speech enshrined?

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Freedom of speech is enshrined in the first amendment 


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Why does this always go to the SC?

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When a federal statute is at issue its federal jurisdiction and the SC is the last instance 

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Q:

VII: suits at common law / jury

A:

procedural guarantee to trail by jury is in the sixth amendment for criminal cases and in the seventh amendment for civil cases

"in suits at common law" 

Q:

Desecrates

A:

 = deface, damage or otherwise physically mistreat in a way that the actor knows will seriously offend one or more persons likely to observe or discover his action 

Q:

What does the Clear and present danger test entail?

A:

=First Amendment does not protect speech that approaches creating a clear and present danger of a significant evil that Congress has power to prevent (judge Holmes said) 


circumstances are important -> the right can be violated if they are being a danger, it is a question of proximity (Nähe) and degree


"words spoken in time of peace could be not protected by any individual right in times at war" 

- Schenck v US

Q:

What does the doctrine of the stare decisis say? 

A:

Doctrine of stare decides says that the precedent decision is binding for that and all lower courts in all future similar cases 

Decision from the first instance is binding law for this court when there comes a future similar case

Q:

Who limited the rights? 

A:

Ultimately the court decides whether a certain limitation is warranted through the so-called scrutiny tests


Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

requirements for a states/ governmental regulation which infringes a fundamental right to be constitutional with the o'brien test

A:

(1) it is within a constitutional power of the government (the government needs to be empowered to act) 

For example in Art 1 section 8 the constitution named the power of the government / legislative


(2) it needs to further an important or substantial governmental interest 

What is substantial or important interest? 


(3) balance : if the incidental restriction on the alleged freedom is no greater than it is essential to the furtherance of that governmental interest

Q:

what is the precedent of Marbury v Madison ?

A:

This decision established judicial review 

Judicial review is the power of the court to declare legislative enactment void because they are contradictory / incompatible to the constitution -> John Marshall wrote this decision 


Q:

Right to privacy concerning abortion - which amendments and decisions which content and precedents in the decisions?

A:

1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 9th, and the 14th Amendments


GRISWOLD v. STATE OF CONNECTICUT. 1965

->  marital privacy

Use of contraception In a marital relationship with the assistance of a physician is constitutional it falls within the individuals right to privacy 


the married couple in the intern relationship and in the relationship with their doctor needs a protected relationship and needs to provide to the married people to make decisions regarding to contraception 



EISENSTADT (state) v. William R. BAIRD. 1972

-> violation of the equal protection clause to only allow married people to abort 


Decision =  SC finds that the statute, viewed as a prohibition on contraception per se, violates the rights of single persons under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.


Q:

Was Roes name real?

A:

Jane Roe is an Alias its not the real name, but her real identity needs to be protected 

John Doe and Jane Doe or John Roe etc are always used as an alias 

Q:

Which test it used in Schenck v US?

A:

Clear and present danger test 

Q:

Where is the freedom of speech enshrined?

A:

Freedom of speech is enshrined in the first amendment 


Q:

Why does this always go to the SC?

A:

When a federal statute is at issue its federal jurisdiction and the SC is the last instance 

constitutional Law fundamental rights

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