Geschichte an der Universität Bielefeld | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für Geschichte an der Universität Bielefeld

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Earliest evidence of modern Homo sapiens in Britain? 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
31,000 years ago
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
When and from where did the Homo sapiens sapiens migrate to the British Isles? 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • hunter-gatherers from Iberia
  • farmers from Balkans/Turkey
  • CA. 10,000-7,000 years ago
  • migrated north as the ice melted
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
Who was Cheddar Man? 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • a mesolithic hunter-gatherer
  • lived around 10,000 years ago
  • migrated to British Isles during end of last ice age
  • skeleton was found in 1903 in Cheddar Gorge, Somerset
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What were characteristics of the Middle Stone Age? 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • farming introduced to Britain
  • rapid climate warming
  • rise in sea levels -> development of modern shorelines
  • people were hunter-gatherers
  • later: social complexity and sedentism
  • small temporary settlements in Britain in contrast to general Mesolithic characteristics
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Timeline of  Prehistoric Britain
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  • Middle Stone Age (Mesolithic) : ca. 10,000 to 4,000 BCE
  • Neolithic (Stone Age): ca. 4,000 to 2,500 BCE
  • Bronze Age: 2,500 to 800 BCE
  • Iron Age: 800 BCE to 400 CE
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What is the significance of Orkney? 
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  • most important Neolithic site in Britain
  • archipelago in Scotland with Neolithic ruins of villages and historic sites
  • e.g. Skara Brae, a Neolithic village (3,100 to 2,500 BC)
  • e.g. Maes Howe, chambered passage tomb (3,000 to 2,800 BC)
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What were characteristics of the Neolithic Age? 
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  • introduction of domesticated animals by European settlers (sheep)
  • early small and short-lived settlements
  • later formation of small villages (e.g. Orkney) 
  • monuments to the dead, e.g. long mounds, passage graves
  • henge monuments as ceremonial centres (Stonehenge) 
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What is Stonehenge? 
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  • a ceremonial centre most likely dedicated to transition from life to death
  • stones aligned with solstices
  • was built from ca. 3,000 to 2,000 BC
  • unattended from 800 BC
  • bodies were brought from Woodhenge to Stonehenge via the River Avon (passage from life to death) and Bluehenge (death)
  • largest burial ground in Britain at that time
-> ritual landscape! 
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What was Durrington Walls?
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Residential housing for up to 3000 people (total population of 40,000-50,000)
  • inhabited seasonally
  • people would travel from far places to come there
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Who were the Celts?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • from "Keltoi", a greek word for tribes that spoke same Indo-European language
  • by 800 BCE they had spread to mainland Europe but not to north of Germany
  • La Tène culture (artifacts) had reached Britain by 400 BCE
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Where did the terms Albion and Britannia come from?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • 325 BC: Greek navigator calls natives in Southern England "Pretanike"
    -> means "tattooed" or "painted"
  • Greek and Romans later turn this into "Pretannia" -> Britannia
  • celtic name "Albion" comes from Proto-Indo-Germanic "albh" for white/hill
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
When was the last ice age? 
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
ca. 20,000 BP
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Q:
Earliest evidence of modern Homo sapiens in Britain? 
A:
31,000 years ago
Q:
When and from where did the Homo sapiens sapiens migrate to the British Isles? 
A:
  • hunter-gatherers from Iberia
  • farmers from Balkans/Turkey
  • CA. 10,000-7,000 years ago
  • migrated north as the ice melted
Q:
Who was Cheddar Man? 
A:
  • a mesolithic hunter-gatherer
  • lived around 10,000 years ago
  • migrated to British Isles during end of last ice age
  • skeleton was found in 1903 in Cheddar Gorge, Somerset
Q:
What were characteristics of the Middle Stone Age? 
A:
  • farming introduced to Britain
  • rapid climate warming
  • rise in sea levels -> development of modern shorelines
  • people were hunter-gatherers
  • later: social complexity and sedentism
  • small temporary settlements in Britain in contrast to general Mesolithic characteristics
Q:
Timeline of  Prehistoric Britain
A:
  • Middle Stone Age (Mesolithic) : ca. 10,000 to 4,000 BCE
  • Neolithic (Stone Age): ca. 4,000 to 2,500 BCE
  • Bronze Age: 2,500 to 800 BCE
  • Iron Age: 800 BCE to 400 CE
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:
What is the significance of Orkney? 
A:
  • most important Neolithic site in Britain
  • archipelago in Scotland with Neolithic ruins of villages and historic sites
  • e.g. Skara Brae, a Neolithic village (3,100 to 2,500 BC)
  • e.g. Maes Howe, chambered passage tomb (3,000 to 2,800 BC)
Q:
What were characteristics of the Neolithic Age? 
A:
  • introduction of domesticated animals by European settlers (sheep)
  • early small and short-lived settlements
  • later formation of small villages (e.g. Orkney) 
  • monuments to the dead, e.g. long mounds, passage graves
  • henge monuments as ceremonial centres (Stonehenge) 
Q:
What is Stonehenge? 
A:
  • a ceremonial centre most likely dedicated to transition from life to death
  • stones aligned with solstices
  • was built from ca. 3,000 to 2,000 BC
  • unattended from 800 BC
  • bodies were brought from Woodhenge to Stonehenge via the River Avon (passage from life to death) and Bluehenge (death)
  • largest burial ground in Britain at that time
-> ritual landscape! 
Q:
What was Durrington Walls?
A:
  • Residential housing for up to 3000 people (total population of 40,000-50,000)
  • inhabited seasonally
  • people would travel from far places to come there
Q:

Who were the Celts?

A:
  • from "Keltoi", a greek word for tribes that spoke same Indo-European language
  • by 800 BCE they had spread to mainland Europe but not to north of Germany
  • La Tène culture (artifacts) had reached Britain by 400 BCE
Q:

Where did the terms Albion and Britannia come from?

A:
  • 325 BC: Greek navigator calls natives in Southern England "Pretanike"
    -> means "tattooed" or "painted"
  • Greek and Romans later turn this into "Pretannia" -> Britannia
  • celtic name "Albion" comes from Proto-Indo-Germanic "albh" for white/hill
Q:
When was the last ice age? 
A:
ca. 20,000 BP
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