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Lernmaterialien für American History critical thinking questions an der Universität Bielefeld

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

60. Does the history of the cotton kingdom support or undermine the Jeffersonian vision of white farmers on self-sufficient farms? Explain your answer.

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

-Vision of rural America relying on farming and nature

- Idea of farmers being self-sufficient by their farming

- Cotton was not for the farmers own good but sold → not self-sufficient

- Cotton farming led to industrialization

- Jeffersonian vision contradicts development of the industry

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

9 What were the various goals of the colonial European powers in the expansion of their empires? To what extent were they able to achieve these goals? Where did they fail?

 

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Spain, France, Netherlands and England sent colonists. Goal: spread their religion and extend the trade routes. Competition over trade. Silk Road was too dangerous, the colonists hoped to find a new route. Competition for both, religion and trade à power. 

The first British colonies failed completely, they were too optimistic and sent only people who were not used to work. The British went for gold, because the Spanish found gold before but did not find any. The French did not expand their territory in Canada, stayed with a tiny territory. 

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

50. If you were defending the Cherokee and other native nations before the U.S. Supreme Court in the 1830s, what arguments would you make? If you were supporting Indian removal, what arguments would you make?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The Indian Removal Act:

The white Americans believe that Indians had no place in a white republic, stating a law to remove Indians from Georgia, Mississipi and Alabama (southeast) to Oklahoma (west).

- five civilized tribes


Against:

- human beings are “removed” and they populated the land before the colonists came 

-Many Indians adapted to the way of life of the colonists and integrated


For (from white colonists viewpoint)

  • Not enough space for everyone
  • Image of Indians being savages
  • Image of Indians who were less civilized
  • Cultural differences
  • Racism



Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

54. What are the economic and political issues raised by having an imbalance between free and slave states? Why did the balance of free and slave states matter?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Slave States: South  / Free States: North (except Missouri)

- slavery was seen as cruel and inhumane in the North and necessary, generating wealth and living white men to follow their true destinies, in the South

Slave holding states were afraid to be misrepresented as a "minority" -> Three-fifths-compromise (Three slaves counted as a person if you owned five, so the Northern states suffered of less representatives for elections, although they were not allowed to vote they could send more representatives)

- The Northern representatives tried to fight slavery, but the Congress rejected

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

62. What strategies did slaves employ to resist, revolt, and sustain their own independent communities and cultures? How did slaves use white southerners’ own philosophies—paternalism and Christianity, for example—to their advantage in these efforts?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Paternalism= white slaveholders behave in a manner best for their slaves
  • Blacks played dumb to get easier tasks
  • Marriage and family-building was allowed

→ taught their children subliminally to become critical towards slavery (e.g. stories)

  • Religion as salvation (black preachers)
  • Traditions from Africa like naming patterns, music, rituals
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

5. What are the differences between the types of slavery traditionally practiced in Africa and the slavery that developed in the New World? How did other types of servitude, such as European serfdom, compare to slavery?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

European serfdom is a peasant tied to the land and its lord. Indentured servitude could end after a couple of years, slaves could buy themselves free. Slavery became based on race because it was easier to identify slaves and the slaves from Africa were resistent to diseases. The tobacco fields were so profitable that more and more slaves were needed.

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

38. Describe Alexander Hamilton’s plans to address the nation’s financial woes. Which aspects proved most controversial, and why? What elements of the foundation Hamilton laid can still be found in the system today?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- The Report on Public Credit: Create a good image of the United States; federal government sells bonds - federal interest bearing notes – to the public; bonds have backing of the government + yield interest payments -> bonds would begin to yield interest payments in 1792.
-> most critique/ controversial: Creditors couldn’t be sure that they would get their money back later; fairness of the plan was questioned -> states with less dept questioned it (North Carolina); states with more dept supported it (South Carolina)
- The Report on a National Bank: establishing a national bank ; previous state bank notes changed into gold, so that a unified currency can be introduced
-> Critique: the Constitution did not permit the creation of a national bank by Jefferson
- The Report on Manufactures (raising revenue): Promote domestic manufactures; tax on American-made whiskey, tariffs on all foreign imports to stimulate the production of American-made goods
-> beginning of American capitalism

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Why did the colonists react so much more strongly to the Stamp Act than to the Sugar Act? How did the principles that the Stamp Act raised continue to provide points of contention between colonists and the British government?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- Stamp act had more influence on colonists' daily lives

- Stamp act affected both the powerful and the less prestigious people

- Stamp act added to the anger already present after the Sugar act

- Stamp act left smuggling as the only option

- Money gained by taxing colonists used for British military presence in the colonies

- Stamp act= direct tax

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

21. Was reconciliation between the American colonies and Great Britain possible in 1774? Why or why not?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Probably not because :

- Britain wanted to keep American colonies as part of their Empire

- Britain tried to "use" colonies as a source of money after making debts in French-Indian-War (taxation)

- Colonists in America felt treated unfairly (e.g. Stamp act, coercive acts)

- "No taxation without representation"

- Boston Tea Party as protest

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

41. What was the most significant impact of the War of 1812?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- Generated a feeling of pride among the entire nation; start of Industrialisation; discredited the Federalist party forever

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

History is filled with unintended consequences. How do the British government’s attempts to control and regulate the colonies during this tumultuous era provide a case in point? How did the aims of the British measure up against the results of their actions?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- British acts fueled colonists' desire to free themselves of the British power

- Formation of Sons and Daughters of Liberty shows colonists' wish to become free and autonomous 

- Colonies started their own production of goods to become independent from British trade and goods

- British overestimated their power

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

13. How did chattel slavery differ from indentured servitude? How did the former system come to replace the latter? What were the results of this shift?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Indentured servitude: 

a labor contract that promised young men, and sometimes women, money and land after they worked for a set period of years -> free after some time 

Chattel slavery: 

people are treated as personal property of the owner, are brought out and sold as commodity -> children born to slaves become slaves

Results: 

racial slavery becomes popular 

Lösung ausblenden
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Q:

60. Does the history of the cotton kingdom support or undermine the Jeffersonian vision of white farmers on self-sufficient farms? Explain your answer.

A:

-Vision of rural America relying on farming and nature

- Idea of farmers being self-sufficient by their farming

- Cotton was not for the farmers own good but sold → not self-sufficient

- Cotton farming led to industrialization

- Jeffersonian vision contradicts development of the industry

Q:

9 What were the various goals of the colonial European powers in the expansion of their empires? To what extent were they able to achieve these goals? Where did they fail?

 

A:

Spain, France, Netherlands and England sent colonists. Goal: spread their religion and extend the trade routes. Competition over trade. Silk Road was too dangerous, the colonists hoped to find a new route. Competition for both, religion and trade à power. 

The first British colonies failed completely, they were too optimistic and sent only people who were not used to work. The British went for gold, because the Spanish found gold before but did not find any. The French did not expand their territory in Canada, stayed with a tiny territory. 

Q:

50. If you were defending the Cherokee and other native nations before the U.S. Supreme Court in the 1830s, what arguments would you make? If you were supporting Indian removal, what arguments would you make?

A:

The Indian Removal Act:

The white Americans believe that Indians had no place in a white republic, stating a law to remove Indians from Georgia, Mississipi and Alabama (southeast) to Oklahoma (west).

- five civilized tribes


Against:

- human beings are “removed” and they populated the land before the colonists came 

-Many Indians adapted to the way of life of the colonists and integrated


For (from white colonists viewpoint)

  • Not enough space for everyone
  • Image of Indians being savages
  • Image of Indians who were less civilized
  • Cultural differences
  • Racism



Q:

54. What are the economic and political issues raised by having an imbalance between free and slave states? Why did the balance of free and slave states matter?

A:

Slave States: South  / Free States: North (except Missouri)

- slavery was seen as cruel and inhumane in the North and necessary, generating wealth and living white men to follow their true destinies, in the South

Slave holding states were afraid to be misrepresented as a "minority" -> Three-fifths-compromise (Three slaves counted as a person if you owned five, so the Northern states suffered of less representatives for elections, although they were not allowed to vote they could send more representatives)

- The Northern representatives tried to fight slavery, but the Congress rejected

Q:

62. What strategies did slaves employ to resist, revolt, and sustain their own independent communities and cultures? How did slaves use white southerners’ own philosophies—paternalism and Christianity, for example—to their advantage in these efforts?

A:
  • Paternalism= white slaveholders behave in a manner best for their slaves
  • Blacks played dumb to get easier tasks
  • Marriage and family-building was allowed

→ taught their children subliminally to become critical towards slavery (e.g. stories)

  • Religion as salvation (black preachers)
  • Traditions from Africa like naming patterns, music, rituals
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

5. What are the differences between the types of slavery traditionally practiced in Africa and the slavery that developed in the New World? How did other types of servitude, such as European serfdom, compare to slavery?

A:

European serfdom is a peasant tied to the land and its lord. Indentured servitude could end after a couple of years, slaves could buy themselves free. Slavery became based on race because it was easier to identify slaves and the slaves from Africa were resistent to diseases. The tobacco fields were so profitable that more and more slaves were needed.

Q:

38. Describe Alexander Hamilton’s plans to address the nation’s financial woes. Which aspects proved most controversial, and why? What elements of the foundation Hamilton laid can still be found in the system today?

A:

- The Report on Public Credit: Create a good image of the United States; federal government sells bonds - federal interest bearing notes – to the public; bonds have backing of the government + yield interest payments -> bonds would begin to yield interest payments in 1792.
-> most critique/ controversial: Creditors couldn’t be sure that they would get their money back later; fairness of the plan was questioned -> states with less dept questioned it (North Carolina); states with more dept supported it (South Carolina)
- The Report on a National Bank: establishing a national bank ; previous state bank notes changed into gold, so that a unified currency can be introduced
-> Critique: the Constitution did not permit the creation of a national bank by Jefferson
- The Report on Manufactures (raising revenue): Promote domestic manufactures; tax on American-made whiskey, tariffs on all foreign imports to stimulate the production of American-made goods
-> beginning of American capitalism

Q:

Why did the colonists react so much more strongly to the Stamp Act than to the Sugar Act? How did the principles that the Stamp Act raised continue to provide points of contention between colonists and the British government?

A:

- Stamp act had more influence on colonists' daily lives

- Stamp act affected both the powerful and the less prestigious people

- Stamp act added to the anger already present after the Sugar act

- Stamp act left smuggling as the only option

- Money gained by taxing colonists used for British military presence in the colonies

- Stamp act= direct tax

Q:

21. Was reconciliation between the American colonies and Great Britain possible in 1774? Why or why not?

A:

Probably not because :

- Britain wanted to keep American colonies as part of their Empire

- Britain tried to "use" colonies as a source of money after making debts in French-Indian-War (taxation)

- Colonists in America felt treated unfairly (e.g. Stamp act, coercive acts)

- "No taxation without representation"

- Boston Tea Party as protest

Q:

41. What was the most significant impact of the War of 1812?

A:

- Generated a feeling of pride among the entire nation; start of Industrialisation; discredited the Federalist party forever

Q:

History is filled with unintended consequences. How do the British government’s attempts to control and regulate the colonies during this tumultuous era provide a case in point? How did the aims of the British measure up against the results of their actions?

A:

- British acts fueled colonists' desire to free themselves of the British power

- Formation of Sons and Daughters of Liberty shows colonists' wish to become free and autonomous 

- Colonies started their own production of goods to become independent from British trade and goods

- British overestimated their power

Q:

13. How did chattel slavery differ from indentured servitude? How did the former system come to replace the latter? What were the results of this shift?

A:

Indentured servitude: 

a labor contract that promised young men, and sometimes women, money and land after they worked for a set period of years -> free after some time 

Chattel slavery: 

people are treated as personal property of the owner, are brought out and sold as commodity -> children born to slaves become slaves

Results: 

racial slavery becomes popular 

American History critical thinking questions

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