Recht Für Startups an der TU München | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für Recht für Startups an der TU München

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The Term "Gewerbe"

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Key Term of the German Trade Regulation Act
    • There is no legal definition of the term in the GewO
  • The Term "Gewerbe" is an indefinite legal concept.
    • Refers to term within a legal fact or norm that is deliberately not conclusively defined by the legislator; interpretation necessary for clarity purposes
    • Objectively untied and expedient; ensure effective economic surveillance to pretext the genreal public and consumers
  • Rough definition of jurisprudence by BVerwG
    • Not socially unworthy (generally not prohibited), profit oriented and long term independent activity, which is not to be counted as primary production, liberal profession or the mere management of one's own assets
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Definition of Partnership under civil law (GbR)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The pship under civil law is (§ 705 BGB)

  • an association of natural or legal persons, > 1
  • based on a contract, the pship agreement which can be silently or explicitly.
  • for the promotion of any joint purpose jointly pursued by the partners, except for the operation of a commercial enterprise within the meaning of § 1 HGB --> oHG acc. to § 105 HGB
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Characteristics of capital companies (as part of corporations)

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Focus on the association. It is detached from the partners/shareholders, which one hardly participate in the daily business (check formulation). 

Principle of external organization. Majority of votes when shareholders are making decisions. 


No personal liability of shareholders. Liability is limited by the associated shares.


The corporation has the legal capacity of a legal person.


NOTE:


Die juristische Person ist
die Antwort der Rechtsordnung
auf die betriebswirtschaftliche Forderung nach Haftungsminimierung!


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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Corporate Tax

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Is a special form of income tax for legal entities such as corporations, like the entrepeneurial company (limited liability), limited liability corporation and stock corporation
  • Companies based abroad and maintaining permanent establishments in Germany are subject to corporate tax only on domestic income earned in Germany
  • Rate is uniform 15%, while the base is the taxable income in one calendar year. Starting point for the calculation is the net profit/net loss for the year under commercial law. 
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Typical Questions in company law

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  1. Foundation
  2. External relationship
    1. Who represents the company/partnership. Who is able to interact in daily business conduct with third parties. Who performs the legal relationship between the partnership and other legal parties. 
    2. Who is liable to creditors?
  3. Internal relationship
    1. Distribution of profits and losses
    2. Process of decision making
Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Name different forms of corporations 

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN
  • Basic form is the association (Verein, §§ 21 ff BGB) NOT COVERED
  • Capital Companies (Kapitalgesellschaften)
    • Stock corporation (AG)
    • Limited liability company (GmbH)
      • also Entrepeneurial Company (limited liability) [UG (haftungsbeschränkt)]
    • Societas Europe (SE) NOT COVERED
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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The external relationship, aka representation and liability

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The external representation follows the management, § 714 BGB. 

So the basic rule is joint representation, which can be problematic. 


There might be a huge gap when considering what somebody can do as a representative of a partnership and what he is effectively allowed to do according the partnership agreement. 


The partners are fully liable with their private assets joint and severally by analogy to § 128 HGB.

For what? 

A partnership under civil law can own claims and liabilities following § 124 HGB with the regulations applicable for general partnership. So in the first place the company is liable for claims with its own assets. 

Misconduct of a partner in analogy to § 31 BGB, which is applicable to an association.

Old debts § 130 HGB.

Theory of accessoriness iaw 128 HGB. 





Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Internal relationship of a partnership under civil law

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Jointly managed by all partners S1. Decisions are made by unanimous consent S2. § 709 I BGB


Partnership agreement can appoint that the majority of votes can decide acc. to § 709 II BGB


Furthermore the partnership agreement can state that the conduct of business is to one ore more partners acc. to § 710 BGB.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The minimum content of the partnership agreement

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The partnership agreement has to include at least:

  • name of the partners
  • the duty to promote the achievement
  • the common purpose



Empfehlenswert sind aber Regelungen zu diesen Punkten:

• die Bestimmung des Gesellschaftszwecks,
• die Beiträge, die die Partner zu erbringen haben, • das Beteiligungsverhältnis,
• die Gewinn- und Verlustverteilung,
• das Entnahmerecht


Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Company assets of partnership under civil law

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The company assets are joint property acc. to § 719 BGB. They belong to the company while the partners have a notional share. 


The assets consist of contributions, purchased items and surrogates. § 718 BGB

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Change of partners in a company under civil law

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Partner can leave voluntarily or by force.

  • Force
    • Termination 723 I S.2, Death 727, Insolvency 728, Resolution 737 BGB

Entry of a new partner:

  • Nothing in the slides. Maybe in analogy to oHG iaw § 130 HGB


Need for contact drafting to prevent dissolution, who to deal with compensation or accrual. 

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Characteristics of Private Companies

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The focus is on the member/partner. Private Companies are based on personal trust and personal commitment. (Zusammenschluss auf Grundlage persönlichen Vertrauens und persönliche Einsatz der Gesellschafter).

Principle that management consists of partners (Prinzip der Selbstorganschaft). Decisions are made based on unanimous consent, aka unanimity. 

Personal liability of the partners. The membership is not freely transferable.

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Q:

The Term "Gewerbe"

A:
  • Key Term of the German Trade Regulation Act
    • There is no legal definition of the term in the GewO
  • The Term "Gewerbe" is an indefinite legal concept.
    • Refers to term within a legal fact or norm that is deliberately not conclusively defined by the legislator; interpretation necessary for clarity purposes
    • Objectively untied and expedient; ensure effective economic surveillance to pretext the genreal public and consumers
  • Rough definition of jurisprudence by BVerwG
    • Not socially unworthy (generally not prohibited), profit oriented and long term independent activity, which is not to be counted as primary production, liberal profession or the mere management of one's own assets
Q:

Definition of Partnership under civil law (GbR)

A:

The pship under civil law is (§ 705 BGB)

  • an association of natural or legal persons, > 1
  • based on a contract, the pship agreement which can be silently or explicitly.
  • for the promotion of any joint purpose jointly pursued by the partners, except for the operation of a commercial enterprise within the meaning of § 1 HGB --> oHG acc. to § 105 HGB
Q:

Characteristics of capital companies (as part of corporations)

A:

Focus on the association. It is detached from the partners/shareholders, which one hardly participate in the daily business (check formulation). 

Principle of external organization. Majority of votes when shareholders are making decisions. 


No personal liability of shareholders. Liability is limited by the associated shares.


The corporation has the legal capacity of a legal person.


NOTE:


Die juristische Person ist
die Antwort der Rechtsordnung
auf die betriebswirtschaftliche Forderung nach Haftungsminimierung!


Q:

Corporate Tax

A:
  • Is a special form of income tax for legal entities such as corporations, like the entrepeneurial company (limited liability), limited liability corporation and stock corporation
  • Companies based abroad and maintaining permanent establishments in Germany are subject to corporate tax only on domestic income earned in Germany
  • Rate is uniform 15%, while the base is the taxable income in one calendar year. Starting point for the calculation is the net profit/net loss for the year under commercial law. 
Q:

Typical Questions in company law

A:
  1. Foundation
  2. External relationship
    1. Who represents the company/partnership. Who is able to interact in daily business conduct with third parties. Who performs the legal relationship between the partnership and other legal parties. 
    2. Who is liable to creditors?
  3. Internal relationship
    1. Distribution of profits and losses
    2. Process of decision making
Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Name different forms of corporations 

A:
  • Basic form is the association (Verein, §§ 21 ff BGB) NOT COVERED
  • Capital Companies (Kapitalgesellschaften)
    • Stock corporation (AG)
    • Limited liability company (GmbH)
      • also Entrepeneurial Company (limited liability) [UG (haftungsbeschränkt)]
    • Societas Europe (SE) NOT COVERED
Q:

The external relationship, aka representation and liability

A:

The external representation follows the management, § 714 BGB. 

So the basic rule is joint representation, which can be problematic. 


There might be a huge gap when considering what somebody can do as a representative of a partnership and what he is effectively allowed to do according the partnership agreement. 


The partners are fully liable with their private assets joint and severally by analogy to § 128 HGB.

For what? 

A partnership under civil law can own claims and liabilities following § 124 HGB with the regulations applicable for general partnership. So in the first place the company is liable for claims with its own assets. 

Misconduct of a partner in analogy to § 31 BGB, which is applicable to an association.

Old debts § 130 HGB.

Theory of accessoriness iaw 128 HGB. 





Q:

Internal relationship of a partnership under civil law

A:

Jointly managed by all partners S1. Decisions are made by unanimous consent S2. § 709 I BGB


Partnership agreement can appoint that the majority of votes can decide acc. to § 709 II BGB


Furthermore the partnership agreement can state that the conduct of business is to one ore more partners acc. to § 710 BGB.

Q:

The minimum content of the partnership agreement

A:

The partnership agreement has to include at least:

  • name of the partners
  • the duty to promote the achievement
  • the common purpose



Empfehlenswert sind aber Regelungen zu diesen Punkten:

• die Bestimmung des Gesellschaftszwecks,
• die Beiträge, die die Partner zu erbringen haben, • das Beteiligungsverhältnis,
• die Gewinn- und Verlustverteilung,
• das Entnahmerecht


Q:

Company assets of partnership under civil law

A:

The company assets are joint property acc. to § 719 BGB. They belong to the company while the partners have a notional share. 


The assets consist of contributions, purchased items and surrogates. § 718 BGB

Q:

Change of partners in a company under civil law

A:

Partner can leave voluntarily or by force.

  • Force
    • Termination 723 I S.2, Death 727, Insolvency 728, Resolution 737 BGB

Entry of a new partner:

  • Nothing in the slides. Maybe in analogy to oHG iaw § 130 HGB


Need for contact drafting to prevent dissolution, who to deal with compensation or accrual. 

Q:

Characteristics of Private Companies

A:

The focus is on the member/partner. Private Companies are based on personal trust and personal commitment. (Zusammenschluss auf Grundlage persönlichen Vertrauens und persönliche Einsatz der Gesellschafter).

Principle that management consists of partners (Prinzip der Selbstorganschaft). Decisions are made based on unanimous consent, aka unanimity. 

Personal liability of the partners. The membership is not freely transferable.

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