Cognitive Systems an der TU München

Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen für Cognitive Systems an der TU München

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Lerne jetzt mit Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen für den Kurs Cognitive Systems an der TU München.

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

  • Def of Cognition (englisch &German)


Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

Def of System

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

What is the Purpose of Cognition?
as a Mechanism of Active, Self-Reliant, and Autonomous Behavior?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

What is the purpose of Cognition in comparison to technical systems considering the complexity of "simple" tasks?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

What is the robotics paradox?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

Definition Cognitive System

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

How is Cognition related to intelligence and learning?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

What are example applications where we need Cognition?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

  • Cognitive capabilities -1. Def of Self-reliance


Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

Cognitive Capabilities: 2. Def of Perception & Action

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

Cognitive Capabilities: 3. Def of Adaption

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

How to benchmark cognition?

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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

Cognitive Systems

  • Def of Cognition (englisch &German)


“a getting to know, acquaintance, knowledge,, “to get to know, recognize” (see cognizance):


process involved in - or act of -knowing (perception and judgement)

  • including all conscious processes, to accumulate knowledge:
    • Perceiving (Wahrnehmen)
    • Recognizing (erkennen)
    • Conceiving (Begreifen)
    • Reasoning (schlussfolgern)
  • experience of knowing <--distinguish--> experience of feeling or willing
  • refers to braind AND mind

    Deutsch:
    Gesamtheit aller Prozesse, die mit dem Wahrnehmen und Erkennen zusammenhängen

Cognitive Systems

Def of System

A regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming a unified whole

  • A group of interacting bodies under the influence of related forces
  • A group of body organs that together perform one or more vital functions
  • The body considered as a functional unit
  • A group of devices or artificial objects or an organization forming a network
    especially for distributing something or serving a common purpose

Cognitive Systems

What is the Purpose of Cognition?
as a Mechanism of Active, Self-Reliant, and Autonomous Behavior?


  •  sum of all mechanisms that enable a system to deal with the uncertainty and change within real-world environments
  •  maintenance of a well-defined system state even under hostile conditions is made possible by fixed goals and intentions that guide the decisions and actions of the system in a purposeful way
  • C enables interaction with other cognitive agents by anticipating and respecting their individual goals
  • C is an essential prerequisite for a system’s autonomy
  • C enables a system to operate in a meaningful way beyond its original
    pre-programmed behavior and specification!

Cognitive Systems

What is the purpose of Cognition in comparison to technical systems considering the complexity of "simple" tasks?

  • Technical systems:
    • are based on and operate according to exact formal descriptions, rules and specification
    • design and implementation of these descriptions is one of the main research questions in computer science (→ Software Engineering)
  • Seemingly simple real-world tasks from everyday life cannot be described with formal methods – no formal “specification” of the world
  • Solving these “simple tasks” with traditional methods requires a priori knowledge, i.e. application-specific constraints: --> formal description of a constrained sub-problem
  • Underlying assumptions of  the formal description are violated --> the system fails since its world model is no longer aligned with reality


Cognitive Systems

What is the robotics paradox?

Constrained environment

  • Robots excel at well-defined repeatable tasks where they can outperform even the
    most skilled human workers:
  • Factory Task: Spot Weldin - well-defined because
    •  the process of making a spot weld can be precisely described in terms of endeffector position and duration
    • the complete environment of the robot is known and usually secured by a cage
    • the robot behaves fully deterministically
    • the environment behaves fully deterministically

Uncertain real world environment

  • No robot built up to now can operate in dynamic real-world environments and carry out simple everyday tasks, such as
    walking, shopping, etc.
  • Everyday Task: Go Shopping -ill-definedbecause…
    • writing the shopping list depends on many external factors (appetite, special offers, menu, availability)
    • going to the shop is different every time (time of day, traffic)
    • the positions of the items in the shop might change without notice
    • Interdependency: the availability of items has direct influence on the menu, which in turn affects the shopping list

Cognitive Systems

Definition Cognitive System

 autonomous system that can:

  •  perceive its environment
  • learn from experience
  • anticipate the outcome of events
  • act to pursue goals
  • adapt to changing circumstances.
    Vernon (2014)

Cognitive Systems

How is Cognition related to intelligence and learning?

Cognition is a synergy and constitution of cognitive skills (intelligence, learning, memory, interaction, etc.):

  • global process at system level: integrates many different processing modalities
  • theory of cognitive systems provides a coherent conceptual framework: including many other disciplines (AI, ML, CV, Control Theory) 
  • --> research on CS: highly interdisciplinary field (from neuroscience to computer science and robotics)
  • In this course definition: individual aspects of a cognitive system: cognitive functions or cognitive skills

Cognitive Systems

What are example applications where we need Cognition?

  • Autonomous Driving
  • Natural Language Processing
  • Human-Robot Interaction
  • Physical Interaction (e.g. walking, sports)
  • Collaborative Work with Multiple Agents

Cognitive Systems

  • Cognitive capabilities -1. Def of Self-reliance


CS must be able to act in and interact with its environment self-reliantly, purposefully, and independently:

  • Goal-Directedness: Take on goals, formulate predictive strategies to achieve them, and put those strategies into effect
  • Autonomy: Operate with varying degrees of autonomy
  • Interaction: Interact – cooperate, collaborate, communicate – with other agents

Cognitive Systems

Cognitive Capabilities: 2. Def of Perception & Action

CS must be able to perceive its environment, make sense of its perceptions, and predict future events: 

  • Interpretation: 
    Read the intention of other agents and anticipate their actions 
  • Sensing:
    Sense and interpret expected and unexpected events 
  • Anticipation:
    of need for actions and predict the outcome of its own actions and those of others 
  • Action
    Select a course of action, carry it out, and then asses the outcome

Cognitive Systems

Cognitive Capabilities: 3. Def of Adaption

CS must be able to adapt to changes of itself, of others, and within the environment

  • Reaction
    Adapt to changing circumstances, in real-time, by adjusting current and anticipated actions
  • Learning
    Learn from experience: adjust the way actions are selected and performed in the future
  • Anomaly Detection:
    Notice when performance is degrading, identify the reason for the degradation,
    and take corrective action

Cognitive Systems

How to benchmark cognition?

Turing Test:

  • proposed by Alan M. Turing in 1950 to determine whether a computer can think. 
  • It is based on an imitation game:
    • An interrogator can communicate with a player A (a man) and a player B (a woman) through written notes
    • The interrogator tries to determine whether player A or player B is the woman
    • In the test, player A(man) is replaced by a computer that tries to make the interrogator believe that it is the woman
    • The computer passes the test when it manages to deceive the interrogator as often as the man
  • In the more common standard interpretation of the test, the computer only imitates a human and the interrogator is not deceived but only needs to tell computer and human apart.

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