Cognitive Systems an der TU München

Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen für Cognitive Systems an der TU München

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Lerne jetzt mit Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen für den Kurs Cognitive Systems an der TU München.

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

What is the NeuroScience behind CNNs

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

What are the key take aways from feature engineering?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

How does the Mind Body Problem adress the question: "What is the relation between the mind (mental world) and the body (physical world)?"

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

What is the Vertebrate nervous system? And how is it organized?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

What is backpropagation?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

What are referrred to as simple Cells in CNN?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

What are synapses and what are they good for??

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

What is the thoretical basis of cognitivism?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

What is the ultimate goal of neuoscience?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

How can we use the full potential from SNN?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

What are glial cells and why do they have an important role for the brain?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

What is the definition of Computational neuroscience?

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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für Cognitive Systems an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

Cognitive Systems

What is the NeuroScience behind CNNs

 The synaptic connectivity pattern of convolutional neural networks implements a neural version of the discrete convolution
• Weights learned during training therefore can be interpreted as filters that are applied to the input of a neuron
• The filters across network layers detect increasingly complex features, which resembles the hierarchical structure of the model by Hubel and Wiesel

Even if the architecture of convolutional networks is inspired by neuroscientific findings, the underlying principles of computation
are fundamentally different

Cognitive Systems

What are the key take aways from feature engineering?

  • Feature spaces are highly domain dependent
  • The performance of a learning algorithm is highly dependent on the quality of the feature space representation
  • Manual feature engineering can become extremely complex for real-world datasets

Cognitive Systems

How does the Mind Body Problem adress the question: "What is the relation between the mind (mental world) and the body (physical world)?"

2 schools of thought:
Substance Dualism (also Cartesian Dualism) 

  • René Descartes postulated that mind and body are two kinds of different substances; their separation makes the soul immortal and enables free will
  • Descartes falsely assumed that the pineal gland (Zirbeldrüse) interfaces the mind with the physical world

Monism (also Physicalism)

  • There is only one substance, which means that mental states are physical states
  • This would imply that individuals that share a mental property also share a corresponding physical property
  • nonreductive physicalism therefore postulates that mental properties are not identical physical ones even though there is only one substance

Cognitive Systems

What is the Vertebrate nervous system? And how is it organized?

The nervous system is an “organized group of cells specialized for the conduction of electrochemical stimuli from sensory receptors through a network to the site at which a response occurs.” In vertebrates, the nervous system is comprised of two subsystems (bidirectional)

  1. Central Nervous System (CNS) (Zentralnervensystem) :
    The CNS is the central information processing system formed by the brain and the spinal cord. It collects and distributes data throughout the body.

  2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) (Peripheres Nervensystem) (geringere Bandbreite):
    The peripheral nervous system transmits signals between
    sensory organs, muscles and internal organs and the CNS.

Cognitive Systems

What is backpropagation?

Description 
1. Mathematically describe a network of neurons.
2. Define a loss, e.g. a measure how well a network performs at a task.
3. Optimize the loss by varying the weights (usually based on chain rule) !You have to be able to compute it

Regular backpropagation works well for 2nd gen. Neuron models. For third generation the algorithms
is known as SpikeProp.

Cognitive Systems

What are referrred to as simple Cells in CNN?

Convolutional Cells

In convolutional neural networks, every “position” of the sliding kernel over the input data is represented by a single neuron
• The synaptic weights correspond to the entries of the kernel matrix and are identical for all neurons of a filter
• This concept is known as weight sharing and considerably reduces the amount of weights that need to be adjusted during training
• Weight sharing exploits spatial invariances of image features

Cognitive Systems

What are synapses and what are they good for??

Synapses are the sites of signal transmission between connected neurons

Every synapse consists of both a presynaptic and a postsynaptic structure.

Electrical synapses

  • based on gap junction channels through which an action potential is directly transferred from the presynaptic to the postsynaptic neuron.

Chemical synapses 

  • the synaptic terminals of the presynaptic neuron form a knob-like structure which is separated from the postsynaptic neuron by a synaptic cleft
  • signals are transferred by a neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) that diffuses through the cleft towards receptors of the postsynaptic neuron
    • Chemical synapses can be excitatory or inhibitory • 
    • Synapses can change their strength (→ learning)
    • Signal transmission can be modulated by neurotransmitters

Cognitive Systems

What is the thoretical basis of cognitivism?

computational theory of mind (CTM):

  • mind is a digital computer: a discrete-state device that stores symbolic representations and manipulates them according to syntactic rules
  •  thoughts are mental representations – more specifically, symbolic representations in a language of thought
  • mental processes are causal sequences driven by the syntactic, but not by the sematic, properties of symbols

Computers are viewed as a proof that purely syntactic operations can express the causality in the semantics of cognitive processes. Cognition can therefore be implemented in a purely physical system.

Cognitive Systems

What is the ultimate goal of neuoscience?

to understand how the flow of electrical signals through neural circuits gives rise to mind – to how we perceive, act, think, learn, and remember.”
From Principles of Neural Science (Kandel et al., 2012)

Cognitive Systems

How can we use the full potential from SNN?

Train ANN 

• Design and train an analogue neural network • Highly optimized algorithms and large variety of available deep learning libraries will result in great networks

Convert to SNN 

• Simply replace the activation function with a spiking neuron model (only conversion loss)

Cognitive Systems

What are glial cells and why do they have an important role for the brain?

  • Most cells in the brain are glial cells (grk. glue). They considerably outnumber the neurons – about 10x glia > neurons. 
  • Glial cells have a supporting function and do not play a direct role in information processing
  • There are two main classes of glia: 

Microglia 

  • “Microglia are immune system cells that are mobilized to present antigens and become phagocytes during injury, infection, or degenerative diseases.”

Macroglia

  • Most glial cells are macroglia. The main functions of macroglia include the
    formation of the myelin sheath around axons and the nutrition of neurons.

Cognitive Systems

What is the definition of Computational neuroscience?

“Computational neuroscience is the field of study in which mathematical tools and theories are used to investigate brain function. It can also incorporate diverse approaches from electrical engineering, computer science and physics in order to
understand how the nervous system processes information.”

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