bbse 3 an der TU München

Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen für bbse 3 an der TU München

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Lerne jetzt mit Karteikarten und Zusammenfassungen für den Kurs bbse 3 an der TU München.

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für bbse 3 an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

Which fundamental commands are missing in Bitcoin script? What could be the reason they are not added?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für bbse 3 an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

The block‘s hash used for chaining is calculated from ... until...

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für bbse 3 an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

Consolidating funds:

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für bbse 3 an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

What is a Wallet Owner?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für bbse 3 an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

Solidity’s standard int and uint datatypes can each hold 232 different values. True or False? Why?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für bbse 3 an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

What is an oracle and what is it used for?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für bbse 3 an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

Properties (including additional) of Cryptographic Hash Functions

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für bbse 3 an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

Solidity - Language feature overview: - Built-in data types?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für bbse 3 an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

What is the difference between memory and storage in Ethereum?

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für bbse 3 an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

The Technical University of Munich (TUM) offers a service for companies and other interested parties to validate certificates it has issued. Therefore, the administration decided to:

1. Hand out a PDF-document to each student with his diploma and

2. Publish all hashes of these diplomas on www.certificates.tum.de. This website provides an easy way for anyone to validate the document.

If a student wants to prove she got a certificate of TUM, she gives the PDF-document to the company. The company hashes the file and verifies that this hash is indeed published at www.certifcates.tum.de.

The administration wants to extend the tool such that it is possible to invalidate hashes. It discusses if it should just publish the revoked hashes, however, this would reveal the number of certificates it has revoked (which can be sometimes embarrassing). First, explain why it is not possible to remove a hash out of a Merkle Tree. Further, explain why storing additional Merkle-Trees with revoked hashes still allows students with revoked certificates to validate their certificates.

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für bbse 3 an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

Transaction object

Beispielhafte Karteikarten für bbse 3 an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

Block object

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Beispielhafte Karteikarten für bbse 3 an der TU München auf StudySmarter:

bbse 3

Which fundamental commands are missing in Bitcoin script? What could be the reason they are not added?

The Bitcoin script does not contain loops or jumps. The main reason is to avoid infinite loops and therefore avoid the halting problem (just for your information, the halting problem is not part of the lecture.). The Bitcoin network requires complete determinism as any difference between nodes could lead to forks. Bitcoin is specifically designed as a digital currency. However, blockchains with loops and jumps (Turing complete) do exist. E.g. Ethereum. We will see more about Ethereum and its script in following lectures.

bbse 3

The block‘s hash used for chaining is calculated from ... until...

The block‘s hash used for chaining is calculated from the version until the nonce field.

bbse 3

Consolidating funds:
Instead of having many unspent transaction outputs, a user can create a transaction that uses all UTXO she has and creates a single UTXO with all the coins in it.

bbse 3

What is a Wallet Owner?

  • The wallet owner owns different private keys to unspent transaction outputs (UTXOs)
  • He is the owner of all stored currencies on these addresses
  • He sends money by signing and publishing new transactions to a connected light node, full node or miner

bbse 3

Solidity’s standard int and uint datatypes can each hold 232 different values. True or False? Why?

False. In Solidity, these datatypes are 256 bit long and therefore hold 2^256 values.

bbse 3

What is an oracle and what is it used for?

Oracles are third-party services that collect data from web services and write the data via a special smart contract to the blockchain. They are used by smart contracts that rely on external data from the oracle for computation of future states.

bbse 3

Properties (including additional) of Cryptographic Hash Functions
– Compression (to fixed bit length n)
– One-way function

– Pre-image resistance (given y, computationally infeasible to find x s.t. h(x)=y)
– 2nd pre-image resistance (given x, computationally infeasible to find x‘ s.t. h(x)=h(x‘)
– Collision Resistance (infeasible to find two values x and y (x!=y) s.t. h(x)=h(y)

bbse 3

Solidity - Language feature overview: - Built-in data types?
int, uint, bool, array, struct, enum, mapping

bbse 3

What is the difference between memory and storage in Ethereum?

Memory is part of the EVM and storage is part of a smart contract. The former is a non- persistent byte array used as temporal storage during execution of a single transaction. The latter is the data storage used by smart contracts which is persistent between multiple trans- actions.

bbse 3

The Technical University of Munich (TUM) offers a service for companies and other interested parties to validate certificates it has issued. Therefore, the administration decided to:

1. Hand out a PDF-document to each student with his diploma and

2. Publish all hashes of these diplomas on www.certificates.tum.de. This website provides an easy way for anyone to validate the document.

If a student wants to prove she got a certificate of TUM, she gives the PDF-document to the company. The company hashes the file and verifies that this hash is indeed published at www.certifcates.tum.de.

The administration wants to extend the tool such that it is possible to invalidate hashes. It discusses if it should just publish the revoked hashes, however, this would reveal the number of certificates it has revoked (which can be sometimes embarrassing). First, explain why it is not possible to remove a hash out of a Merkle Tree. Further, explain why storing additional Merkle-Trees with revoked hashes still allows students with revoked certificates to validate their certificates.

It is not possible to remove the hash out of the Merkle tree, as the required information for verification (=proof of membership) would change and it would be required to resend the additional information (inclusion proof, see question above, downside 1) to other students. We could store Merkle-Trees which contain revoked certificates. Unfortunately, a employer would require the proof of membership to check if a credential is revoked or not. We cannot expect a student which revoked certificate to disclose this information. Omitting the proof-of-membership in the tree, the certificate still remains valid.

bbse 3

Transaction object

The main difference is that tx always refers to a transaction, i.e. it’s source is always an externally
owned account.
tx.origin: The issuer of the transaction. This is always an externally owned account. DO NOT USE
FOR AUTHENTICATION!
tx.gasprice: Information about the gas price that was used by the issuer of the transaction

bbse 3

Block object

Solidity provides a global variable called block to access the most recent block of the blockchain.
block.coinbase: The account address of the current block’s miner
block.difficulty: The current mining difficulty as unsigned integer
block.gaslimit: The current block’s gaslimit (by the miner)
block.timestamp: The UNIX timestamp of the block (in theory, can by manipulated by the miner)

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