Action And Cognition an der TU Kaiserslautern | Karteikarten & Zusammenfassungen

Lernmaterialien für Action and Cognition an der TU Kaiserslautern

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Name at least 4 areas/sub-compartments of areas that are part of the ventral and dorsal pathway respectively.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

-Dorsal: V1,V2, dorsal V3 (V3d), V5, MST, LIP,VIP

-Ventral: V1-V4, belonging to occipital lobe, PIT and AIT

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe the structures revealed by a cytochrome oxidase staining of secondary visual cortex (V2) in monkey.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

-thin stripes: neurons within color selective, many double opponent with generally larger receptive fields than those in V1

-thick stripes: orientation selective and direction selective; also sensitive to binocular disparity, allows to code depth info

-interstripes: larger receptive fields but similar receptive field characteristics to interblob V1 regions, major of cells not color but orientation selective

-response properties of these not exclusively defined, all also react to others, but these are features that are preferred of most neurons there 

-larger receptive fields than in V1

-optimal stimuli for V2 have more complex shapes

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Give an example of a non-classical receptive field effect.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- non-classical receptive field has the special response property that a stimulus from outside the receptive field of the neuron modulates the response behavior of the neuron

- Example of non-classical receptive field effect: border ownership

- when have a square on background and the border of it is receptive field, cell fire nicely if square is on left but when square is on right fires less

- cell cares where border belongs to, left or right part

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

What is a typical effect of increasing the size of cropped visual stimuli?

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- as long as the brain matures, respective brain regions will be used for other tasks

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain the parallel pathways from retina to primary visual cortex. Include the relevant neuronal types and connectivity.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- V1 receives main input from parallel M- & P-pathways of LGN

- Layer 4 subdivided into L4A, L4B,L4C alpha,L4C beta

- Magno cells project primary to layer 4Calpha

-parvo cells project mainly to layer 4c beta

-input from LGN get transported from l4 via stellate cells to V1 -> parallel pathway remain partially segregated in V1 but distinction not as clear cut as hoped

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Describe an experimental technique used to investigate the connectivity between V1 and V2.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- inject retrogate tracer into a thin stripe of V2 neurons in V1 are labelled -> produced labelled cells primarily in L2/3 within blobs of V1

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain which currents of which neurons where in the brain contribute most to observable EEG and MEG signals respectively.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

The electrical currents of apical dendritic trees of pyramidal cells are alligned/oriented in same direction and the electric and magnetic fields of them add up. Like this the magnetic fields caused by the electric currents can be measured. Can only see at surface.

EEG: electrical, radial and tangential 

MEG: magnetic, only tangential 

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

State properties of different experimental techniques (EEG, MEG, fMRI, NIRS and PET) with respect to the signal measured, temporal and spatial resolution and other more practically oriented properties. Make a quantitative statement where appropriate.

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- EEG: electromagnetic fields the pyramidal cells cause; temporal res: 0.01s; spatial res: 40mm; low burden for suject, mobile set up, good compability, rather low costs

-MEG: electromagnetic fields of pyramidal cells; temporal res: 0.01s; spatial res: 20mm; low burden on subject, stationary setup, bad compatibility and great costs

-fMRI: measure heamoglobin lvl, BOLD response; temporal res: 1s; spatial res: 3mm; moderate burden on subject, stationary setup, moderate compatibility, relative high costs, but theres nothing similar which is cheaper

-PET: tracer is injected and tracked through body so can see tissues; temporal res: 1h; spatial res: 7mm; high burden on subject, stationary setup, moderate compatibility, rather high costs, mainly replaced by fMRI

- NIRS: measures oxygenated blood; temporal res: 1s; spatial res: 4mm; low burden on subject, mobile setup, good compatibility, rather low inverstment

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain the different origin of the T1 and T2 signals in fMRI.

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TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- receiver coil detects the exponential growth of longitudinal magnetization described by time constant T1

- the exponential decay of transverse magnetization described by time constant T2

- proton density, T1 and T2 relaxation rates, diffusive processes of proton spin dephasing, loss of proton phase coherence due to tissue magnetic susceptibility variations and in-flow of blood plasma protons.

- push two swings under same condition, then stop: T2 desynchronization, T1 come to rest

- desynchronization

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain the different interpretation of the T1 and T2 signal in fMRI.

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- proton density, T1 and T2 relaxation rates, diffusive processes of proton spin dephasing, loss of proton phase coherence due to tissue magnetic susceptibility variations and in-flow of blood plasma protons.

- receiver coil is the exponential growth of longitudinal magnetization described by time constant T1 and the exponential decay of transverse

- These time constants differ for different tissues (e.g. for white and gray matter) due to different magnetic properties of tissues but also for oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin: Oxygenated hemoglobin is diamagnetic, while deoxygenated hemoglobin is paramagnetic. That makes it possible to differentiate
between oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin and thus, to display BOLD responses across
the brain and examine brain activity indirectly

- MR images = T1, anatomical imaging = T2

-what these are used for

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Which method would be most suitable to determine the temporal relation between the presentation of a visual stimulus and neuronal response and why?

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- EEG since it has the best temporal resolution

Lösung ausblenden
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

Explain the major division of the visual system into a ventral and a dorsal pathway. Describe one example of the experimental evidence in detail.

Lösung anzeigen
TESTE DEIN WISSEN

- Ventral pathway / “What pathway” —> object and color perception

- Dorsal pathway / “Where Pathway” —> motion processing

- Ventral pathway is associated with the parvocellular pathway (“slow and detailed”)

and dorsal pathways is associated with the magnocellular pathway (“quick and dirty”)

—> distinction is not clear cut, magno- and parvocellular pathways overlap

- Double dissociation experiment: landmark task and shape discrimination task

-landmark task: two squares, one is closer to a cylinder, the cylinder taken away, monkey has to remember which square was nearer to it; Lesions in parietal cortex produce deficits in this; dorsal pathway

-shape discrimination task: raisin under one of two shapes, monkey has to remember under which; lesions in IT cortex produce deficits; ventral pathway

Lösung ausblenden
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Q:

Name at least 4 areas/sub-compartments of areas that are part of the ventral and dorsal pathway respectively.

A:

-Dorsal: V1,V2, dorsal V3 (V3d), V5, MST, LIP,VIP

-Ventral: V1-V4, belonging to occipital lobe, PIT and AIT

Q:

Describe the structures revealed by a cytochrome oxidase staining of secondary visual cortex (V2) in monkey.

A:

-thin stripes: neurons within color selective, many double opponent with generally larger receptive fields than those in V1

-thick stripes: orientation selective and direction selective; also sensitive to binocular disparity, allows to code depth info

-interstripes: larger receptive fields but similar receptive field characteristics to interblob V1 regions, major of cells not color but orientation selective

-response properties of these not exclusively defined, all also react to others, but these are features that are preferred of most neurons there 

-larger receptive fields than in V1

-optimal stimuli for V2 have more complex shapes

Q:

Give an example of a non-classical receptive field effect.

A:

- non-classical receptive field has the special response property that a stimulus from outside the receptive field of the neuron modulates the response behavior of the neuron

- Example of non-classical receptive field effect: border ownership

- when have a square on background and the border of it is receptive field, cell fire nicely if square is on left but when square is on right fires less

- cell cares where border belongs to, left or right part

Q:

What is a typical effect of increasing the size of cropped visual stimuli?

A:

- as long as the brain matures, respective brain regions will be used for other tasks

Q:

Explain the parallel pathways from retina to primary visual cortex. Include the relevant neuronal types and connectivity.

A:

- V1 receives main input from parallel M- & P-pathways of LGN

- Layer 4 subdivided into L4A, L4B,L4C alpha,L4C beta

- Magno cells project primary to layer 4Calpha

-parvo cells project mainly to layer 4c beta

-input from LGN get transported from l4 via stellate cells to V1 -> parallel pathway remain partially segregated in V1 but distinction not as clear cut as hoped

Mehr Karteikarten anzeigen
Q:

Describe an experimental technique used to investigate the connectivity between V1 and V2.

A:

- inject retrogate tracer into a thin stripe of V2 neurons in V1 are labelled -> produced labelled cells primarily in L2/3 within blobs of V1

Q:

Explain which currents of which neurons where in the brain contribute most to observable EEG and MEG signals respectively.

A:

The electrical currents of apical dendritic trees of pyramidal cells are alligned/oriented in same direction and the electric and magnetic fields of them add up. Like this the magnetic fields caused by the electric currents can be measured. Can only see at surface.

EEG: electrical, radial and tangential 

MEG: magnetic, only tangential 

Q:

State properties of different experimental techniques (EEG, MEG, fMRI, NIRS and PET) with respect to the signal measured, temporal and spatial resolution and other more practically oriented properties. Make a quantitative statement where appropriate.

A:

- EEG: electromagnetic fields the pyramidal cells cause; temporal res: 0.01s; spatial res: 40mm; low burden for suject, mobile set up, good compability, rather low costs

-MEG: electromagnetic fields of pyramidal cells; temporal res: 0.01s; spatial res: 20mm; low burden on subject, stationary setup, bad compatibility and great costs

-fMRI: measure heamoglobin lvl, BOLD response; temporal res: 1s; spatial res: 3mm; moderate burden on subject, stationary setup, moderate compatibility, relative high costs, but theres nothing similar which is cheaper

-PET: tracer is injected and tracked through body so can see tissues; temporal res: 1h; spatial res: 7mm; high burden on subject, stationary setup, moderate compatibility, rather high costs, mainly replaced by fMRI

- NIRS: measures oxygenated blood; temporal res: 1s; spatial res: 4mm; low burden on subject, mobile setup, good compatibility, rather low inverstment

Q:

Explain the different origin of the T1 and T2 signals in fMRI.

A:

- receiver coil detects the exponential growth of longitudinal magnetization described by time constant T1

- the exponential decay of transverse magnetization described by time constant T2

- proton density, T1 and T2 relaxation rates, diffusive processes of proton spin dephasing, loss of proton phase coherence due to tissue magnetic susceptibility variations and in-flow of blood plasma protons.

- push two swings under same condition, then stop: T2 desynchronization, T1 come to rest

- desynchronization

Q:

Explain the different interpretation of the T1 and T2 signal in fMRI.

A:

- proton density, T1 and T2 relaxation rates, diffusive processes of proton spin dephasing, loss of proton phase coherence due to tissue magnetic susceptibility variations and in-flow of blood plasma protons.

- receiver coil is the exponential growth of longitudinal magnetization described by time constant T1 and the exponential decay of transverse

- These time constants differ for different tissues (e.g. for white and gray matter) due to different magnetic properties of tissues but also for oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin: Oxygenated hemoglobin is diamagnetic, while deoxygenated hemoglobin is paramagnetic. That makes it possible to differentiate
between oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin and thus, to display BOLD responses across
the brain and examine brain activity indirectly

- MR images = T1, anatomical imaging = T2

-what these are used for

Q:

Which method would be most suitable to determine the temporal relation between the presentation of a visual stimulus and neuronal response and why?

A:

- EEG since it has the best temporal resolution

Q:

Explain the major division of the visual system into a ventral and a dorsal pathway. Describe one example of the experimental evidence in detail.

A:

- Ventral pathway / “What pathway” —> object and color perception

- Dorsal pathway / “Where Pathway” —> motion processing

- Ventral pathway is associated with the parvocellular pathway (“slow and detailed”)

and dorsal pathways is associated with the magnocellular pathway (“quick and dirty”)

—> distinction is not clear cut, magno- and parvocellular pathways overlap

- Double dissociation experiment: landmark task and shape discrimination task

-landmark task: two squares, one is closer to a cylinder, the cylinder taken away, monkey has to remember which square was nearer to it; Lesions in parietal cortex produce deficits in this; dorsal pathway

-shape discrimination task: raisin under one of two shapes, monkey has to remember under which; lesions in IT cortex produce deficits; ventral pathway

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